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Small vs. young firms across the world : contribution to employment, job creation, and growth

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  • Ayyagari, Meghana
  • Demirguc-Kunt, Asli
  • Maksimovic, Vojislav

Abstract

This paper investigates the contribution of small firms to employment, job creation, and growth in developing countries. While small firms (<20 employees) have the smallest share of aggregate employment, the SME sector's (<100 employees) contribution is comparable to that of large firms. Small firms have the largest shares of job creation, and highest sales growth and employment growth, even after controlling for firm age. Large firms, however, have higher productivity growth. Conditional on size, young firms are the fastest growing and large mature firms have the largest employment shares but small young firms have higher job creation rates.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 5631.

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Date of creation: 01 Apr 2011
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5631

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Related research

Keywords: Labor Markets; Microfinance; Small Scale Enterprise; Labor Policies; Access to Finance;

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References

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  1. Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüc-Kunt, A. & Maksimovic, V., 2008. "Financing patterns around the world: Are small firms different?," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3132806, Tilburg University.
  2. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson, 2005. "Unbundling Institutions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(5), pages 949-995, October.
  3. John Haltiwanger & Stefano Scarpetta & Helena Schweiger, 2010. "Cross country differences in job reallocation: the role of industry, firm size and regulations," Working Papers 116, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Office of the Chief Economist.
  4. Ayyagari, Meghana & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2008. "Formal versus informal finance : evidence from China," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4465, The World Bank.
  5. Meghana Ayyagari & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2008. "How Important Are Financing Constraints? The Role of Finance in the Business Environment," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 22(3), pages 483-516, November.
  6. Eric J. Bartelsman & John C. Haltiwanger & Stefano Scarpetta, 2009. "Cross-Country Differences in Productivity: The Role of Allocation and Selection," NBER Working Papers 15490, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. La Porta, Rafael & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. " Legal Determinants of External Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1131-50, July.
  8. Rauch, James E., 2010. "Development through synergistic reforms," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 153-161, November.
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  10. Sleuwaegen, Leo & Goedhuys, Micheline, 2002. "Growth of firms in developing countries, evidence from Cote d'Ivoire," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 117-135, June.
  11. Meghana Ayyagari & Asli Demirgüc-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2008. "How Well Do Institutional Theories Explain Firms' Perceptions of Property Rights?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 1833-1871, July.
  12. Beck, H.T.L. & Demirgüç-Kunt, A. & Maksimovic, V., 2006. "The influence of financial and legal institutions on firm size," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125428, Tilburg University.
  13. Ayyagari, M. & Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüç-Kunt, A., 2007. "Small and medium enterprises across the globe," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4731699, Tilburg University.
  14. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2005. "Financial and Legal Constraints to Growth: Does Firm Size Matter?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 137-177, 02.
  15. John C. Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2010. "Who Creates Jobs? Small vs. Large vs. Young," NBER Working Papers 16300, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
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  18. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1996. "Financial Dependence and Growth," NBER Working Papers 5758, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Gordon M Phillips & Vojislav Maksimovic, 1999. "Do Conglomerate Firms Allocate Resources Inefficiently?," Working Papers 99-11, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ghani, Ejaz & Kerr, William R. & O’Connell, Stephen D, 2011. "Who Creates Jobs?," World Bank - Economic Premise, The World Bank, The World Bank, issue 70, pages 1-7, November.
  2. Vivarelli, Marco, 2012. "Entrepreneurship in Advanced and Developing Countries: A Microeconomic Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 6513, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Garcia-Murillo, Martha & Velez-Ospina, Jorge Andres & Vargas-Leon, Patricia, 2012. "Where should governments invest? The impact of economic, political, social and technological factors on the formation of new firms," 23rd European Regional ITS Conference, Vienna 2012 60400, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).
  4. Wim Naudé, 2011. "Foreign Aid for Innovation: The Missing Ingredient in Private Sector Development?," Working Papers 2011/35, Maastricht School of Management.
  5. Parth S. Tewari & David Skilling & Pranav Kumar & Zack Wu, 2013. "Competitive Small and Medium Enterprises : A Diagnostic to Help Design Smart SME Policy," World Bank Other Operational Studies 16636, The World Bank.
  6. Vivarelli, Marco, 2012. "Drivers of entrepreneurship and post-entry performance : microeconomic evidence from advanced and developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6245, The World Bank.
  7. Ayyagari, Meghana & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2012. "Financing of firms in developing countries : lessons from research," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6036, The World Bank.

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