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Regional Employment Evolutions in the European Union: A Preliminary Analysis

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  • Ron Martin
  • Peter Tyler

Abstract

MARTIN R. and TYLER P.(2000) Regional employment evolutions in the European Union: a preliminary analysis, Reg. Studies 34, 601-616. In recent years there has been considerable interest by academics and policy makers in comparing the employment performance of the European Union with that of the US. In comparison to Europe, the US economy has generated jobs at a dramatically higher rate. However,what is perhaps not as obvious is that there have been significant regional variations in employment growth across the US. Regions which have been fast job creators have tended to stay that way through time and vice-versa for regions with relatively slower growth rates. Moreover, in response to economic shocks the relative regional pattern of employment evolution tends to reassert itself. The regional experience of the US takes on added significance in the context of the progressive movement towards economic and monetary integration which has been underway in the EU since the early 1980s and a central question is whether the US experience provides a guide to the pattern of regional employment change which is emerging across Europe. In particular, will regional employment evolutions become increasingly divergent as Magnifico argued over 25 years ago? In practice little is known about what the pattern of regional evolutions has been across the Member States of the EU and this paper seeks to identify, in a preliminary way, some of the major regional differences which have existed. MARTIN R. et TYLER P.(2000) L'evolution de l'emploi en Europe: une premiere analyse, Reg. Studies 34, 601-616. Au cours des dernieres annees les universitaires et les decideurs se sont beaucoup interesses acomparer l'evolution de l'emploi dans l'Union europeenne acelle aux Etats-Unis. Par rapport al'Europe, la creation d'emplois aux Etats-Unis s'est averee nettement plus importante. Toujours est-il que des variations regionales des taux de croissance de l'emploi sont anoter aussi atravers les Etats-Unis. Les regions les plus creatrices d'emplois le sont toujours, et vice versa pour ce qui est des regions dont le taux de croissance de l'emploi s'avere relativement moins rapide. Qui plus est, suite aux chocs economiques, la distribution regionale relative de l'evolution de l'emploi a tendanceas'imposer de nouveau. L'experience regionale aux Etats-Unis se revet d'une importance supplementaire dans le cadre du processus de tatonnement vers l'integration economique et monetaire qui est en cours de construction depuis le debut des annees 80, et une question primordiale qui se pose est la suivante: l'experience americaine, est-ce qu'elle fournit un modele type de la distribution de l'evolution de l'emploi regional qui voit le jour atravers l'Europe? En particulier, l'evolution de l'emploi regional va-t-elle se creuser, comme le soutient Magnifico il y a vingt-cinq annees? En realite, on ne sait pas grande chose de la distribution de l'evolution regionale a travers les pays membres de l'Ue, et cet article cherche afaire une premiere estimation des principales differences regionales. MARTIN R. und TYLER P.(2000) Regionale Entwicklungen im Erwerbsleben Europas: eine vorlaufige Analyse, Reg Studies 34, 601-616. In den letzten Jahren bestand bei Akademikern und Parteiideologen betrachtliches Interesse an Vergleichen der Arbeitsleistung der Europaischen Union mit derjenigen der VereinigtenStaaten. Im Vergleichmit Europa hat die Wirtschaft der USA eine weitaus hohere Rate der Arbeitsplatzschaffung aufzuweisen. Es ist jedoch nicht unbedingt ebenso offensichtlich, dass in den Vereinigten Staaten allgemein bedeutende regionale Unterschiede in der Zunahme von Erwerbsstellen gibt. Regionen, die schnell Arbeitsplatze beschafften, haben meist auf dieser Tradition aufgebaut und sie fortgesetzt, wahrend das gleiche umgekehrt auf Regionen mit relativ langsamen Wachstumsraten zutrifft. In Erwiderung auf wirtschaftliche Schocks macht sich zudem das relative regionale Muster der Arbeitsplatzbeschaffung erneut geltend. Im Zusammenhang mit der fortschreitenden Bewegung in Richtung Integration von Wirtschaft und Wahrung, die in der europaischen Union Anfang der achtziger Jahre einsetzte, nimmt die regionale Pragung der Erfahrungen in den USA zusatzlich an Bedeutung zu, und es erhebt sich die Frage, ob die Erfahrungen der USA ein Wegweiser fur das Muster des Wandels regionaler Erwerbstatigkeit darstellen, das in ganz Europa im Entstehen begriffen ist. Vorallem: werden regionale Entwicklungen im Erwerbswesen weiter auseinanderklaffen, wie Magnifico vor mehr als 25 Jahren behauptete? In der Praxis ist wenig uber den Verlauf des Musters regionaler Entwicklung in den verschiedenen Mitgliedstaaten der EU bekannt, und dieser Aufsatz sucht, vorlaufig einige regionale Hauptunterschiede aufzuzeigen, die bestanden haben.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Regional Studies.

Volume (Year): 34 (2000)
Issue (Month): 7 ()
Pages: 601-616

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Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:34:y:2000:i:7:p:601-616

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Keywords: Regional; Employment; European Union; United States;

References

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  1. Schmutzler, Armin, 1999. " The New Economic Geography," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(4), pages 355-79, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Luisa Corrado & Ron Martin & Melvyn Weeks, 2004. "Identifying And Interpreting Convergence Clusters Across Europe," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2004 145, Royal Economic Society.
  2. Inmaculada Garcia-Mainar & Victor Montuenga-Gomez, 2003. "The Spanish Wage Curve: 1994-1996," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(9), pages 929-945.
  3. Suedekum, Jens, 2004. "Increasing Returns and Spatial Unemployment Disparities," HWWA Discussion Papers 256, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  4. Robert Dixon & David Shepherd, 2013. "Regional Dimensions of the Australian Business Cycle," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(2), pages 264-281, February.
  5. Marelli, Enrico, 2004. "Evolution of employment structures and regional specialisation in the EU," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 35-59, March.
  6. Cristiano Perugini & Marcello Signorelli, 2007. "Labour Market Performance Differentials and Dynamics in EU-15 Countries and Regions," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 4(2), pages 209-262, September.
  7. Jens Suedekum & Uwe Blien, 2004. "Wages and Employment Growth: Disaggregated Evidence for West Germany," ERSA conference papers ersa04p641, European Regional Science Association.
  8. Audretsch, David B. & Hülsbeck, Marcel & Lehmann, Erik E., 2010. "Regional competitiveness, university spillovers and entrepreneurial activity," UO Working Papers 02-10, University of Augsburg, Chair of Management and Organization.
  9. Marcello Signorelli, 2005. "Employment and policies in Europe: a regional perspective," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 05/2005, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia, Finanza e Statistica.
  10. GUISAN, María-Carmen & Aguayo, Eva, 2013. "Employment by Sector and Gender in European and Spanish Regions, 1995-2012," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 13(2), pages 31-42.

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