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Les diplômes se dévaluent-ils en se multipliant ?

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  • Christian Baudelot
  • Michel Glaude
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    Abstract

    [fre] Au cours des quinze dernières années, le rôle de l'école est devenu de plus en plus déterminant dans la fixation des rémunérations individuelles. Toutefois, en raison de l'afflux des diplômés, la position relative des diplômes les plus modestes se dégrade. Les diplômes universitaires commencent même à être touchés par ces phénomènes de déclassement, tout du moins au sein des rémunérations les plus élevées. . En termes de rendement de la formation, une année supplémentaire passée au sein du système scolaire apporte un bonus de salaire. Mais ce bonus décroît régulièrement de 1 970 à 1 985. Les formations générales sont plus . chées que les formations professionnelles. La conjoncture explique en partie cette dépréciation relative des diplômes. Les relèvements des bas salaires, en particulier du SMIC, ont resserré l'éventail des rémunérations et contribué à déprécier le rendement des plus hauts diplômes. . Si l'on neutralise ces effets de la conjoncture, le rendement marginal de l'éducation baisse plus faiblement. Cette baisse est même entièrement annulée si l'on raisonne en termes de classement au sein d'une génération. Autrement dit, le rang de sortie du système de formation ne se dévalue pas avec le temps. [eng] Do Diplomas Depreciate as the Number of Graduates Increases ? - Over the last fifteen years, education has played an increasingly larger role in determining an individual's income. However, due to a larger number of graduates, lower degrees are losing their relative status. Even university diplomas are starting to be affected by this drop in status, at least for those individual in the highest income bracket. . In terms of the financial benefits derived from education, the extra income that an employee receives from spending an additional year at school steadily dropped from 1 970 to 1 985. General education was more affected than technical training. The present economic situation accounts in part for the relative downgrading of the degrees. The raising of low salaries, in particular the SMIC (guaranteed minimum wage), has narrowed the salary range, thus contributing to the depreciation in profitability of the highest degrees. . If one does not take into account the effects of the present economic situation, the marginal profitability of education does not drop as steeply. The drop is even cancelled if one thinks in terms of the level at which students leave the educational system. In other words, this ranking does not depreciate with time. [spa] Los diplomas pierden su valor al multiplicarse ? - En el transcurso de los últimos quince años, el papel desempenado por la escuela, se ha hecho cada vez mas determinante en lo que a la fijaciôn de las remuneraciones individuales se refiere. Sin embargo, como consecuencia de la afluencia del número de diplomados, la posición relativa de los diplomas mas modestos se degrada. Incluso, los diplomas universitarios comienzan a verse afectados por estos fenomenos de desclasificacion, por lo menos en la escala correspondiente a las remuneraciones mas elevadas. . En terminos de rendimiento de la formacion, la bonificación salarial que acarrea un ano suplementario transcurrido en la escuela decrece en forma regular de 1970 a 1985. Las formanciones de tipo general se encuentran mas afectadas que las formaciones profesionales. La coyuntura explica, en parte, esta depreciacion relativa de los diplomas. Los aumentos de los salarios bajos y en particular del S.M.I., an reducido el abanico de salarios y han contribuido a la depreciacion del rendimiento de los diplomas mas elevados. . Si se neutralizan taies efectos de coyuntura, el rendimiento marginal de la educacion decrece mas levemente. Incluso esta baja se ve integramente anulada si se razona en terminos de "lugar ocupado en la clasificacion" al egreso del sistema de formacion. Dicho de otro modo, el puesto ocupado por un individuo en la clasificacion al egresar del sistema de formación no se devalua con el tiempo.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

    Volume (Year): 225 (1989)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 3-16

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_1989_num_225_1_5360

    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.1989.5360
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/estat

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    Cited by:
    1. Anne-Gisèle Privat, 2005. "L'avenir des retraites en France: Evalutation de l'impact des réformes de 1993 et de 2033 à l'aide du modèle de microsimulation Artémis," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/f4rshpf3v1u, Sciences Po.
    2. A. Skalli, 2003. "Are Successive Investments in Education Equally Worthwile ? Endogeneous Schooling Decisions and Non-Linearities in the Earnings-schooling Relationship," Working Papers ERMES 0318, ERMES, University Paris 2.
    3. Delteil, Violaine & Pailhe, Ariane & Redor, Dominique, 2004. "Comparing individual wage determinants in Western and Central Europe: on the way to convergence? The cases of France and Hungary," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 482-499, September.
    4. Magali Jaoul, 2004. "Enseignement supérieur et marchés du travail. Analyse économétrique de la théorie de l’engorgement," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 166(5), pages 39-57.
    5. Philippe Lemistre & Marie-Benoît Magrini, 2008. "La mobilité géographique des jeunes ouvriers et employés est-elle rentable ?," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 185(4), pages 63-88.
    6. Denis Maguain, 2007. "Les rendements de l'éducation en comparaison internationale," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 180(4), pages 87-106.
    7. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/f4rshpf3v1umfa09lat214kj4 is not listed on IDEAS

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