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Tax Incidence with Three Goods and Two Primary Factors: Theory and Applications

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  • Bhatia, Kul B

Abstract

A three-good-two-primary-factor (3x2) general equilibrium model, along with parallel numerical illustrations, is developed to analyze the incidence and welfare cost of several taxes. The approach, blending theory and computed examples, enriches some well-known tax models and provides more insights than either the text-book two-by-two treatments or purely numerical models in areas such as environmental taxation and value-added tax (vat). It is ideal for considering factor taxes in intermediate-good industries (e.g., profit- and payroll taxes in mining industries) which are widely used but not much discussed in the literature. Their incidence, generally, turns out to be very different from similar taxes in final-good industries. A stylized application incorporating zero-rating and exemptions, two key features of the vat system in many countries, further illustrates the usefulness of this framework.

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Article provided by in its journal Public Finance = Finances publiques.

Volume (Year): 53 (1998)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 123-44

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Handle: RePEc:pfi:pubfin:v:53:y:1998:i:2:p:123-44

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  1. David F. Burgess, 1989. "Lower World Energy Prices: Good News or Bad News?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 22(3), pages 487-502, August.
  2. Myles, G.D., 1989. "Imperfect Competition And The Taxation Of Intermediate Goods," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 315, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  3. Peter A. Diamond & J. A. Mirrlees, 1968. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production," Working papers 22, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  4. Bovenberg, A. Lans & Goulder, Lawrence H., 1997. "Costs of Environmentally Motivated Taxes in the Presence of Other Taxes: General Equilibrium Analyses," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 50(1), pages 59-88, March.
  5. Bhatia, Kul B, 1989. "Short Run and Long Run in the Theory of Tax Incidence," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 44(3), pages 343-60.
  6. James Poterba & Julio Rotemberg, 1995. "Environmental taxes on intermediate and final goods when both can be imported," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 221-228, August.
  7. Bhatia, Kul B, 1982. "Intermediate Goods and the Theory of Tax Incidence," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 37(3), pages 318-38.
  8. Shome, Parthasarathi, 1981. "The General Equilibrium Theory and Concepts of Tax Incidence in the Presence of Third or More Factors," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 36(1), pages 22-38.
  9. Lawrence Goulder, 1995. "Environmental taxation and the double dividend: A reader's guide," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 157-183, August.
  10. Berndt, Ernst R & Wood, David O, 1979. "Engineering and Econometric Interpretations of Energy-Capital Complementarity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 342-54, June.
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