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The Bright and Dark Sides of Religiosity Among University Students: Do Gender, College Major, and Income Matter?

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  • Yuh-Jia Chen

    ()

  • Thomas Tang

    ()

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    Abstract

    We develop a theoretical model involving religiosity [intrinsic (I), extrinsic-social (E s ), and extrinsic-personal (E p ), Time 1], Machiavellianism (Time 2), and propensity to engage in unethical behavior (Time 2) to investigate direct and indirect paths. We collected two-wave panel data from 359 students who had some work experiences. For the whole sample, intrinsic religiosity (I) indirectly curbed unethical intentions through the absence of Machiavellianism, the bright side of religiosity. Both extrinsic-social (E s ) and extrinsic-personal (E p ) directly, while extrinsic-social (E s ) indirectly, exacerbated unethical intentions, the dark side of religiosity. Multiple-group analyses across gender, college major, and income showed that the bright side existed directly for low-income students, but indirectly for males and females, business majors, and low-income students. Our novel finding showed that E p undermined unethical intentions indirectly for females. For the dark side, E s incited unethical intentions directly for males, business students, and low-income individuals, but indirectly for females, psychology majors, and low-income people. The Machiavellianism–unethical intentions relationship was the strongest for high-income participants. Religiosity had the highest number of significant paths for low-income individuals and the strongest dark side for males and high-income students, but the highest bright outcome for females. Our novel, original findings foster theory development and testing, add new vocabulary to the conversation of religiosity and unethical intentions, and improve practice. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10551-012-1407-2
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Springer in its journal Journal of Business Ethics.

    Volume (Year): 115 (2013)
    Issue (Month): 3 (July)
    Pages: 531-553

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    Handle: RePEc:kap:jbuset:v:115:y:2013:i:3:p:531-553

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    Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100281

    Related research

    Keywords: Religiosity; Religious Orientation Scale; Machiavellianism; Unethical intentions; Theft; Corruption; Deception; Gender; Major; Income; ASPIRE;

    References

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    1. Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Tang, 2006. "Attitude Toward and Propensity to Engage in Unethical Behavior: Measurement Invariance across Major among University Students," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 69(1), pages 77-93, November.
    2. Abhijit Patwardhan & Megan Keith & Scott Vitell, 2012. "Religiosity, Attitude Toward Business, and Ethical Beliefs: Hispanic Consumers in the United States," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 110(1), pages 61-70, September.
    3. Thomas Tang & Hsi Liu, 2012. "Love of Money and Unethical Behavior Intention: Does an Authentic Supervisor’s Personal Integrity and Character (ASPIRE) Make a Difference?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 107(3), pages 295-312, May.
    4. Robert H. Frank & Thomas Gilovich & Dennis T. Regan, 1993. "Does Studying Economics Inhibit Cooperation?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(2), pages 159-171, Spring.
    5. Thomas Tang & Yuh-Jia Chen, 2008. "Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: The Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior across College Major and Gender," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 82(1), pages 1-26, September.
    6. Elisaveta Sardžoska & Thomas Tang, 2012. "Work-Related Behavioral Intentions in Macedonia: Coping Strategies, Work Environment, Love of Money, Job Satisfaction, and Demographic Variables," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 108(3), pages 373-391, July.
    7. Thomas Tang & Toto Sutarso & Grace Davis & Dariusz Dolinski & Abdul Ibrahim & Sharon Wagner, 2008. "To Help or Not to Help? The Good Samaritan Effect and the Love of Money on Helping Behavior," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 82(4), pages 865-887, November.
    8. Shanda Traiser & Myron Eighmy, 2011. "Moral Development and Narcissism of Private and Public University Business Students," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 99(3), pages 325-334, March.
    9. Scott Vitell & Jatinder Singh & Joseph Paolillo, 2007. "Consumers’ Ethical Beliefs: The Roles of Money, Religiosity and Attitude toward Business," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 73(4), pages 369-379, July.
    10. T. Tang, 2007. "Income and Quality of Life: Does the Love of Money Make a Difference?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 72(4), pages 375-393, June.
    11. Deanne Hartog & Frank Belschak, 2012. "Work Engagement and Machiavellianism in the Ethical Leadership Process," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 107(1), pages 35-47, April.
    12. Barbara Ritter, 2006. "Can Business Ethics be Trained? A Study of the Ethical Decision-making Process in Business Students," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 68(2), pages 153-164, October.
    13. Hong Wong, 2008. "Religiousness, Love of Money, and Ethical Attitudes of Malaysian Evangelical Christians in Business," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 81(1), pages 169-191, August.
    14. Scott Vitell, 2009. "The Role of Religiosity in Business and Consumer Ethics: A Review of the Literature," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 90(2), pages 155-167, November.
    15. S. Brammer & Geoffrey Williams & John Zinkin, 2007. "Religion and Attitudes to Corporate Social Responsibility in a Large Cross-Country Sample," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 71(3), pages 229-243, March.
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