An analysis of failed takeover attempts and merger cancellations
AbstractPurpose – This study seeks to analyze the differences between merger cancellations and three types of takeover failures: failures that are associated with targeted share repurchases (greenmail), failures in which the sole bidder simply withdraws the offer, and failures that are accompanied by a general share repurchase (buyback). Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses event study methods and regression analysis. Findings – The paper observes negative target stock price reactions around all types of takeover failures and merger cancellations. However, the cumulative effect of takeover attempts is positive, suggesting that even unsuccessful tender offers generate permanent gains to target firm shareholders, while the cumulative effect of canceled mergers is negative. Furthermore, the market reaction to greenmail-induced takeover failure announcements is no worse than that of voluntary withdrawals, suggesting that greenmail may play an efficient role in mitigating the effects of takeover bid withdrawals. Finally, while bidder wealth is destroyed in takeover failures, the effect of merger cancellations on bidders is considerably more devastating. Originality/value – The paper provides evidence of negative stock price reactions to all forms of merger failure. The paper also shows that the cumulative effect of all types of takeover failures is still positive: suggesting that being put into play is still beneficial overall but that canceled mergers destroy value for both targets and bidders. The paper shows that the market reaction to greenmail-induced failure announcements is no worse than other forms of failure. Finally, while there is an immediate downturn in target prices around a failure, the negative outcome is more severe for the bidders. Thus, the market sees that there was something useful about the anticipated change in corporate control, which was lost when it failed to be completed.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal International Journal of Managerial Finance.
Volume (Year): 7 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 (September)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com
Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
- G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fama, Eugene F., 1985. "What's different about banks?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 29-39, January.
- Holderness, Clifford G. & Sheehan, Dennis P., 1985. "Raiders or saviors? The evidence on six controversial investors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 555-555, December.
- Linn, Scott C. & McConnell, John J., 1983. "An empirical investigation of the impact of `antitakeover' amendments on common stock prices," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 361-399, April.
- Sinha, Sidharth, 1991. "Share Repurchase as a Takeover Defense," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(02), pages 233-244, June.
- Mikkelson, Wayne H. & Partch, M. Megan, 1988. "Withdrawn Security Offerings," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(02), pages 119-133, June.
- Jarrell, Gregg A & Bradley, Michael, 1980. "The Economic Effects of Federal and State Regulations of Cash Tender Offers," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 23(2), pages 371-407, October.
- Eckbo, B. Espen, 1990. "Valuation Effects of Greenmail Prohibitions," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(04), pages 491-505, December.
- G. William Schwert, 2000.
"Hostility in Takeovers: In the Eyes of the Beholder?,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2599-2640, December.
- G. William Schwert, 1999. "Hostility in Takeovers: In the Eyes of the Beholder?," NBER Working Papers 7085, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dodd, Peter & Ruback, Richard, 1977. "Tender offers and stockholder returns : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 351-373, December.
- Assem Safieddine & Sheridan Titman, 1999. "Leverage and Corporate Performance: Evidence from Unsuccessful Takeovers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 547-580, 04.
- Dodd, Peter, 1980. "Merger proposals, management discretion and stockholder wealth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 105-137, June.
- Denis, David J, 1990. " Defensive Changes in Corporate Payout Policy: Share Repurchases and Special Dividends," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(5), pages 1433-56, December.
- Wong, Pauline & O'Sullivan, Noel, 2001. " The Determinants and Consequences of Abandoned Takeovers," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(2), pages 145-86, April.
- Dodd, Peter & Warner, Jerold B., 1983. "On corporate governance : A study of proxy contests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 401-438, April.
- Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
- Michael J. Sullivan & Marlin R. H. Jensen & Carl D. Hudson, 1994. "The Role of Medium of Exchange in Merger Offers: Examination of Terminated Merger Proposals," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
- Bradley, Michael & Wakeman, L. Macdonald, 1983. "The wealth effects of targeted share repurchases," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 301-328, April.
- Bradley, Michael, 1980. "Interfirm Tender Offers and the Market for Corporate Control," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(4), pages 345-76, October.
- Dann, Larry Y. & DeAngelo, Harry, 1983. "Standstill agreements, privately negotiated stock repurchases, and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 275-300, April.
- Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1985. "Using daily stock returns : The case of event studies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-31, March.
- Michael J. Sullivan & Marlin R.H. Jensen & Carl D. Hudson, 1994. "The Role of Medium of Exchange in Merger Offers: Examination of Terminated Merger Proposals," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Louise Lister).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.