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Environment, Land, and Rural Out-migration in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes

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  • Gray, Clark L.
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    Abstract

    Summary Out-migration, environmental degradation, and changes in land distribution are all key processes of rural transformation in the developing world, but few quantitative studies have investigated their interactions in migrant origin areas. This study uses survey data from the southern Ecuadorian Andes and an event history model to investigate the effects of land ownership and environmental conditions on out-migration to local, internal, and international destinations. The results indicate that the effects of land ownership and other factors differ strongly across migration streams. Also, negative environmental conditions and landlessness do not consistently increase out-migration as commonly assumed in the literature.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VC6-4T9JWHX-1/2/8d897b096a902e51172469e0ce138660
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal World Development.

    Volume (Year): 37 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 2 (February)
    Pages: 457-468

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:37:y:2009:i:2:p:457-468

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev

    Related research

    Keywords: rural out-migration access to land environmental refugees destination choice Andes Ecuador;

    References

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    1. Timothy Halliday, 2005. "Migration, Risk and Liquidity Constraints in El Salvador," Working Papers 200511, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics, revised 28 Mar 2006.
    2. Mendola, Mariapia, 2008. "Migration and technological change in rural households: Complements or substitutes?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 150-175, February.
    3. Rigg, Jonathan, 2006. "Land, farming, livelihoods, and poverty: Rethinking the links in the Rural South," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 180-202, January.
    4. Stark, Oded & Bloom, David E, 1985. "The New Economics of Labor Migration," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 173-78, May.
    5. Rosenzweig, Mark R & Stark, Oded, 1989. "Consumption Smoothing, Migration, and Marriage: Evidence from Rural India," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 905-26, August.
    6. Ellis, Frank, 2000. "Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198296966.
    7. World Bank, 2004. "Ecuador : Poverty Assessment," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14593, The World Bank.
    8. Beauchemin, Cris & Schoumaker, Bruno, 2005. "Migration to cities in Burkina Faso: Does the level of development in sending areas matter?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1129-1152, July.
    9. Shaw, R Paul, 1974. " Land Tenure and the Rural Exodus in Latin America," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 23(1), pages 123-32, October.
    10. Reardon, Thomas & Taylor, J. Edward, 1996. "Agroclimatic shock, income inequality, and poverty: Evidence from Burkina Faso," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 901-914, May.
    11. Arjan de Haan & Ben Rogaly, 2002. "Introduction: Migrant Workers and Their Role in Rural Change," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(5), pages 1-14.
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    Cited by:
    1. Gray, Clark & Mueller, Valerie, 2012. "Drought and Population Mobility in Rural Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 134-145.

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