Are lending relationships beneficial or harmful for public credit guarantees? Evidence from Japan's Emergency Credit Guarantee Program
AbstractThis paper examines the effectiveness of Japan's Emergency Credit Guarantee (ECG) Program set up during the financial turmoil following the failure of Lehman Brothers, in increasing credit availability and improving the ex-post performance of small businesses. In particular, using a unique firm–bank matched dataset, the paper examines whether lending relationships enhanced or dampened the effects of the ECG program. It is found that the ECG program significantly improved credit availability for firms using the program. However, when it was a relationship lender (main bank) that extended an ECG loan, the increased availability was partially, if not completely, offset by a decrease in non-ECG loans by the same bank. Further, propensity score matching estimations show that the ex-post performance of firms that received ECG loans from the main bank deteriorated more than that of firms that received non-ECG loans. We do not find such loan “substitution” or performance “deterioration” effects when a non-main bank extended ECG loans. Our findings suggest that close firm–bank relationships may have perverse effects on the efficacy of public credit guarantees.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Stability.
Volume (Year): 9 (2013)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jfstabil
Loan guarantee; Relationship lending; Small business credit;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
- G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
- G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
- Kroszner, Randall S & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. "Is the Glass-Steagall Act Justified? A Study of the U.S. Experience with Universal Banking before 1933," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 810-32, September.
- MINELLI, Enrico & MODICA, Salvatore, 2003.
"Credit market failures and policy,"
CORE Discussion Papers
2003093, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Allan Riding & Judith Madill & George Haines, 2007. "Incrementality of SME Loan Guarantees," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 47-61, June.
- Gale, William G, 1991.
"Economic Effects of Federal Credit Programs,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 133-52, March.
- Angelini, P. & Di Salvo, R. & Ferri, G., 1998. "Availability and cost of credit for small businesses: Customer relationships and credit cooperatives," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 925-954, August.
- Cowling, Marc, 2007.
"The Role of Loan Guarantee Schemes in Alleviating Credit Rationing in the UK,"
1613, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Cowling, Marc, 2010. "The role of loan guarantee schemes in alleviating credit rationing in the UK," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 36-44, April.
- Randall S. Kroszner & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995.
"Organization Structure and Credibility: Evidence from Commercial Bank Securities Activities Before the Glass-Steagall Act,"
NBER Working Papers
5256, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kroszner, Randall S. & Rajan, Raghuram G., 1997. "Organization structure and credibility: Evidence from commercial bank securities activities before the Glass-Steagall Act," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 475-516, August.
- Randall S. Kroszner & Raghuram G. Rajan, . "Organization Structure and Credibility: Evidence from Commercial Bank Securities Activities Before the Glass-Steagall Act," CRSP working papers 325, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- William G. Gale, 1988.
"Federal Lending and the Market for Credit,"
UCLA Economics Working Papers
504, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Mankiw, N Gregory, 1986.
"The Allocation of Credit and Financial Collapse,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 101(3), pages 455-70, August.
- Boot, Arnoud W A & Thakor, Anjan V & Udell, Gregory F, 1991. "Secured Lending and Default Risk: Equilibrium Analysis, Policy Implications and Empirical Results," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 458-72, May.
- Columba, Francesco & Gambacorta, Leonardo & Mistrulli, Paolo Emilio, 2010.
"Mutual guarantee institutions and small business finance,"
Journal of Financial Stability,
Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 45-54, April.
- Francesco Columba & Leonardo Gambacorta & Paolo Emilio Mistrulli, 2009. "Mutual guarantee institutions and small business finance," BIS Working Papers 290, Bank for International Settlements.
- Columba, F. & Gambacorta, L. & Mistrulli, P.E., 2009. "Mutual Guarantee Institutions and Small Business Finance," Discussion Paper 2009-32 S, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Francesco Columba & Leonardo Gambacorta & Paolo Emilio Mistrulli, 2009. "Mutual guarantee institutions and small business finance," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 735, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Giovanni Busetta & Alberto Zazzaro, 2009.
"Mutual Loan-Guarantee Societies in Monopolistic Credit Markets with Adverse Selection,"
Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers
33, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
- Busetta, Giovanni & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2012. "Mutual loan-guarantee societies in monopolistic credit markets with adverse selection," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 15-24.
- Gande, Amar, et al, 1997. "Bank Underwriting of Debt Securities: Modern Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 1175-1202.
- Salvatore Zecchini & Marco Ventura, 2009. "The impact of public guarantees on credit to SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 191-206, February.
- Kang, Jun-Koo & Liu, Wei-Lin, 2007. "Is universal banking justified? Evidence from bank underwriting of corporate bonds in Japan," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 142-186, April.
- Inha Oh & Jeong-Dong Lee & Almas Heshmati & Gyoung-Gyu Choi, 2009. "Evaluation of credit guarantee policy using propensity score matching," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 335-351, October.
- Stulz, ReneM. & Johnson, Herb, 1985. "An analysis of secured debt," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 501-521, December.
- Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 2008. "Microeconomics of Banking, 2nd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262062704, January.
- Cole, Rebel A., 1998. "The importance of relationships to the availability of credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 959-977, August.
- Innes, Robert, 1991. "Investment and government intervention in credit markets when there is asymmetric information," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 347-381, December.
- Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
- Riding, Allan L. & HainesJR., George, 2001. "Loan guarantees: Costs of default and benefits to small firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 595-612, November.
- James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998.
"Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data,"
NBER Working Papers
6699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1017-1098, September.
- Wenying Jiangli & Haluk Unal & Chiwon Yom, 2008. "Relationship Lending, Accounting Disclosure, and Credit Availability during the Asian Financial Crisis," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(1), pages 25-55, 02.
- de Meza, David & Webb, David C, 1987. "Too Much Investment: A Problem of Asymmetric Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 102(2), pages 281-92, May.
- Jae Kang & Almas Heshmati, 2008.
"Effect of credit guarantee policy on survival and performance of SMEs in Republic of Korea,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 445-462, December.
- Jae Kang & Almas Heshmati & Gyoung-Gyu Choi, 2008. "Effect of credit guarantee policy on survival and performance of SMEs in Republic of Korea," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 443-443, December.
- Heshmati, Almas, 2013. "The Effect of Credit Guarantees on R&D Investment of SMEs in Korea," IZA Discussion Papers 7851, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ono, Arito & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2014. "SME Financing in Japan during the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from Firm Surveys," HIT-REFINED Working Paper Series 6, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.