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Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal


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  • Shrestha, Ram M.
  • Rajbhandari, Salony
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    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO2 and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO2 emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO2 emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 38 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 9 (September)
    Pages: 4818-4827

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:9:p:4818-4827

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    Keywords: Urban energy use CO2 emission targets Kathmandu Valley energy system model;

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    1. Webster, Mort & Paltsev, Sergey & Reilly, John, 2008. "Autonomous efficiency improvement or income elasticity of energy demand: Does it matter?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 2785-2798, November.
    2. Bose, Ranjan Kumar & Shukla, Megha, 1999. "Elasticities of electricity demand in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 137-146, March.
    3. Dhakal, Shobhakar, 2003. "Implications of transportation policies on energy and environment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(14), pages 1493-1507, November.
    4. Pradhan, Shreekar & Ale, Bhakta Bahadur & Amatya, Vishwa Bhusan, 2006. "Mitigation potential of greenhouse gas emission and implications on fuel consumption due to clean energy vehicles as public passenger transport in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal: A case study of trolley bu," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 1748-1760.
    5. Kesgin, Ugur, 2006. "Aircraft emissions at Turkish airports," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 372-384.
    6. Shrestha, Ram M. & Malla, Sunil, 1996. "Air pollution from energy use in a developing country city: The case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 21(9), pages 785-794.
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    Cited by:
    1. Malla, Sunil, 2013. "Household energy consumption patterns and its environmental implications: Assessment of energy access and poverty in Nepal," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 990-1002.
    2. Wang, Mingwei & Che, Yue & Yang, Kai & Wang, Min & Xiong, Lijun & Huang, Yuchi, 2011. "A local-scale low-carbon plan based on the STIRPAT model and the scenario method: The case of Minhang District, Shanghai, China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 6981-6990.
    3. Ye Liu & Guohe Huang & Yanpeng Cai & Cong Dong, 2011. "An Inexact Mix-Integer Two-Stage Linear Programming Model for Supporting the Management of a Low-Carbon Energy System in China," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(10), pages 1657-1686, October.
    4. Shree Shakya & S. Kumar & Ram Shrestha, 2012. "Co-benefits of a carbon tax in Nepal," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 77-101, January.
    5. Suganthi, L. & Samuel, Anand A., 2012. "Energy models for demand forecasting—A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 1223-1240.


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