Relationships between water pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) and indicators of economic level, water supply and sanitation in developing countries
AbstractWater pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) as indicators to evaluate quantitatively domestic wastewater pollutant discharges to the ambient water were applied to eight international coastal zones and lakeside regions. Statistical analyses were conducted to find the relationships between PDCs and water, sanitation and economic parameters including purchase power parity based gross national income (PPP-GNI) per capita, proportions of access to safe drinking water and appropriate sanitation, domestic water usage amount, and integrated parameters of water, sanitation and economic indicators (WSEI1, 2). Two of the important findings from the regression analyses results were PDC-BOD correlated with PPP-GNI per capita with 3rd-order regression, and PDC-TP correlated with WSEI1 positively with 10% significance, besides smaller adjusted regression coefficients. t-values of partial regression coefficients between PDC-TP and WSEI2 increased in the most analyses cases compared to those between PDC-TP and WSEI1, which showed improvement of the indices. Empirical estimations were also conducted based on the regression analyses results and distributions of PDCs and PPP-GNI per capita on the graphs. Six components generated by the principle component analysis (PCA) contributed 99% of the parameters. The first component represented access to sanitation, second one represented household connection of safe drinking water, third one represented areal equipment of water supply in urban area, fourth one represented domestic water usage amount, fifth one represented areal equipment of water supply, and sixth one represented income per capita and sanitation. Although some statistically significances of the multiple linear regression analysis were observed, the relationships between PDCs and the water supply parameters were considered as complicated in regards to areal equipment and household connection, and in whole country and in urban area. Possible chronological relationships between PDC-BOD and water supply equipment were considered based on the results of the multiple linear regression analyses and PCA. Based on the considerations of the water pollutant discharges and the economic related parameters relationships, domestic wastewater treatment facility deployments and improvements on pollutant discharges reduction for the water quality improvement in the receiving water bodies were recommended, which would lead the relationship curves between the water, sanitation and economic related indicators and PDCs to move downward.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Ecological Economics.
Volume (Year): 68 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1-2 (December)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolecon
Developing countries Domestic wastewater Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) Marine pollution Pollutant discharge per capita (PDC) Purchase power parity based gross national income (PPP-GNI) Water; Sanitation and economic indicator (WSEI);
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Tisdell, Clem, 2001. "Globalisation and sustainability: environmental Kuznets curve and the WTO," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 185-196, November.
- Chimeli, Ariaster B., 2007. "Growth and the environment: Are we looking at the right data?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 89-96, July.
- Khanna, Neha & Plassmann, Florenz, 2007. "Total factor productivity and the Environmental Kuznets Curve: A comment and some intuition," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 54-58, June.
- Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg & Wagner, Martin, 2006.
"Exploring the Environmental Kuznets Hypothesis. Theoretical and Econometric Problems,"
183, Institute for Advanced Studies.
- Muller-Furstenberger, Georg & Wagner, Martin, 2007. "Exploring the environmental Kuznets hypothesis: Theoretical and econometric problems," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 648-660, May.
- Haight, Alan Day, 2007. "Diagram for a small planet: The Production and Ecosystem Possibilities Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 224-232, October.
- Liu, Xiaozi & Heilig, Gerhard K. & Chen, Junmiao & Heino, Mikko, 2007. "Interactions between economic growth and environmental quality in Shenzhen, China's first special economic zone," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 559-570, May.
- Jordi Roca & Mònica Serrano, 2006.
"Income growth and atmospheric pollution in Spain: an Input-Output approach,"
UHE Working papers
2006_04, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament d'Economia i Història Econòmica, Unitat d'Història Econòmica.
- Roca, Jordi & Serrano, Monica, 2007. "Income growth and atmospheric pollution in Spain: An input-output approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 230-242, June.
- Jordi Roca Jusmet & Monica Serrano Gutierrez, 2006. "Income Growth and Atmospheric Pollution in Spain: An Input-Output Approach," Working Papers in Economics 164, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
- Ranjan, Ram & Shortle, James, 2007. "The environmental Kuznets curve when the environment exhibits hysteresis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 204-215, October.
- Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan & Ewing, Bradley T., 2007. "Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 482-489, May.
- Chimeli, Ariaster B. & Braden, John B., 2005. "Total factor productivity and the environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 366-380, March.
- Nguyen Van, Phu & Azomahou, Theophile, 2007.
"Nonlinearities and heterogeneity in environmental quality: An empirical analysis of deforestation,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 291-309, September.
- Ph. Nguyen Van & Th. Azomahou, 2005. "Nonlinearties and heterogeneity in environmental quality : an empirical analysis of deforestation," THEMA Working Papers 2005-13, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
- Halkos, George & Tzeremes, Nickolaos, 2011. "A conditional full frontier modelling for analyzing environmental efficiency and economic growth," MPRA Paper 32839, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wendy Shamier).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.