Women as agents of change: Female income and mobility in India
AbstractEconomic globalization will give many women in developing countries access to steady and relatively remunerative employment for the first time, potentially shifting bargaining power within their households and changing the choices that are made for their children. This paper exploits a unique setting -- a group of tea plantations in South India where women are employed in permanent wage labor and where incomes do not vary by caste -- to anticipate the impact of globalization on mobility across social groups in the future. The main result of the paper is that a relative increase in female income weakens the family's ties to the ancestral community and the traditional economy, but these mobility enhancing effects are obtained for certain historically disadvantaged castes alone. Although the paper provides a context-specific explanation for why the women from these castes emerge as agents of change, the first general implication of the analysis is that the incentive and the ability of women to use their earnings to influence household decisions depends importantly on their social background. The second implication is that historically disadvantaged groups may, in fact, be especially responsive to new opportunities precisely because they have fewer ties to the traditional economy to hold them back.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Development Economics.
Volume (Year): 94 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/devec
Globalization Mobility Female income Household decisions Education Marriage Marital violence Networks Caste Gender;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rao, Vijayendra, 1997. "Wife-beating in rural South India: A qualitative and econometric analysis," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 44(8), pages 1169-1180, April.
- Bruce Shearer, 1996. "Piece-Rates, Principal-Agent Models, and Productivity Profiles: Parametric and Semi-Parametric Evidence from Payroll Records," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(2), pages 275-303.
- Donald Cox, 2003. "Private Transfers within the Family: Mothers, Fathers, Sons and Daughters," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 605, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Fernández, Raquel & Fogli, Alessandra, 2005.
"Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work and Fertility,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5089, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Alessandra Fogli & Raquel Fernandez, 2009. "Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work, and Fertility," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 146-77, January.
- Alessandra Fogli & Raquel Fernandez, 2005. "Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work, and Fertility," Working Papers 05-07, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Raquel Fernandez & Alessandra Fogli, 2005. "Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work, and Fertility," NBER Working Papers 11268, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Raquel Fernandez & Alessandra Fogli, 2005. "Culture: an empirical investigation of beliefs, work, and fertility," Staff Report 361, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- McElroy, Marjorie B & Horney, Mary Jean, 1981. "Nash-Bargained Household Decisions: Toward a Generalization of the Theory of Demand," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 22(2), pages 333-49, June.
- Chiappori, P.A., 1989.
"Collective Labour Supply and Welfare,"
DELTA Working Papers
89-07, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Ligon, Ethan, 2002. "Dynamic bargaining in households (with an application to Bangladesh)," CUDARE Working Paper Series 972, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- Lundberg, S. & Pollak, R.A., 1991.
"Separate Spheres Bargaining and the Marriage Market,"
91-08, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
- Lundberg, Shelly & Pollak, Robert A, 1993. "Separate Spheres Bargaining and the Marriage Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(6), pages 988-1010, December.
- Lundberg, S. & Pollak, R.A., 1991. "Separate Spheres Bargaining and the Marriage Market," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 91-08, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
- Duncan Thomas, 1990.
"Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
- Thomas, D., 1989. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Papers 586, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Schuler, Sidney Ruth & Hashemi, Syed M. & Riley, Ann P. & Akhter, Shireen, 1996. "Credit programs, patriarchy and men's violence against women in rural Bangladesh," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 43(12), pages 1729-1742, December.
- Kaivan Munshi & Mark Rosenzweig, 2006. "Traditional Institutions Meet the Modern World: Caste, Gender, and Schooling Choice in a Globalizing Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(4), pages 1225-1252, September.
- Judith K. Hellerstein & David Neumark, 1995. "Are Earnings Profiles Steeper Than Productivity Profiles? Evidence from Israeli Firm-Level Data," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(1), pages 89-112.
- Ligon, Ethan, 2002. "Dynamic bargaining in households (with application to Bangladesh)," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt1t52k4c5, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Manser, Marilyn & Brown, Murray, 1980. "Marriage and Household Decision-Making: A Bargaining Analysis," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 21(1), pages 31-44, February.
- Oecd, 2002. "Gender and Economic Reform," OECD Journal on Development, OECD Publishing, vol. 3(2), pages 7-42.
- Lupin Rahman & Vijayendra Rao, 2004. "The Determinants of Gender Equity in India: Examining Dyson and Moore's Thesis with New Data," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(2), pages 239-268.
- Browning, Martin & Francois Bourguignon & Pierre-Andre Chiappori & Valerie Lechene, 1994.
"Income and Outcomes: A Structural Model of Intrahousehold Allocation,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1067-96, December.
- Browning, M. & Bourguignon, F. & Chiappori, P.A. & Lechene, V., 1992. "Incomes and Outcomes: A structural Model of Intra-Household Allocation," DELTA Working Papers 92-23, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
- Konte, Maty, 2014.
"Gender difference in support for democracy in sub-Saharan Africa: Do social institutions matter?,"
Working Paper Series
UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Konte M., 2014. "Gender difference in support for democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Do social institutions matter?," MERIT Working Papers 009, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
- Wang, Shing-Yi, 2014.
"Property rights and intra-household bargaining,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 192-201.
- Bhaumik, Sumon K. & Dimova, Ralitza & Gang, Ira N., 2014.
"Is Women's Ownership of Land a Panacea in Developing Countries? Evidence from Land-Owning Farm Households in Malawi,"
IZA Discussion Papers
7907, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sumon K. Bhaumik & Ralitza Dimova & Ira N. Gang, 2013. "Is women's ownership of land a panacea in developing countries? Evidence from land-owning farm households in Malawi," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1055, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Auriol, Emmanuelle & Demonsant, Jean-Luc, 2011.
"Education and Migration Choices in Hierarchical Societies: The Case of Matam, Senegal,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
8311, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Auriol, Emmanuelle & Demonsant, Jean-Luc, 2012. "Education and migration choices in hierarchical societies: The case of Matam, Senegal," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 875-889.
- Auriol, Emmanuelle & Demonsant, Jean-Luc, 2011. "Education and Migration Choices in Hierarchical Societies: The Case of Matam, Senegal," TSE Working Papers 11-236, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
- Auriol, Emmanuelle & Demonsant, Jean-Luc, 2011. "Education and Migration Choices in Hierarchical Societies: The Case of Matam, Senegal," IDEI Working Papers 672, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised 0000.
- Yoo-Mi Chin, 2012. "Male backlash, bargaining, or exposure reduction?: women’s working status and physical spousal violence in India," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 175-200, January.
- Doss, Cheryl, 2013. "Intrahousehold bargaining and resource allocation in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6337, The World Bank.
- Chin, Yoo-Mi, 2012. "Credit Program Participation and Decline in Violence: Does Self-Selection Matter?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1690-1699.
- Stephan Klasen & Janneke Pieters, 2013.
"What explains the stagnation of female labor force participation in urban India?,"
Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers
146, Courant Research Centre PEG.
- Klasen, Stephan & Pieters, Janneke, 2013. "What Explains the Stagnation of Female Labor Force Participation in Urban India?," IZA Discussion Papers 7597, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.