Aestheticism in the Theory of Custom
AbstractLa nature des processus dâ€™apprentissage ainsi que les considÃ©rations Ã©volutionaires suggÃ¨rent que le jugement esthÃ©tique est dâ€™une importance centrale dans la formation des coutumes. Lâ€™ apprentissage et lâ€™extrapolation prennent appui sur les Ã©valuations de caractÃ©ristiques noninstrumentales telles que la simplicitÃ©, lâ€™analogie, la droiture et la clartÃ©. De plus, lâ€™apprentissage est particuliÃ¨rement efficace sâ€™il est animÃ© par un dÃ©sir actif de dÃ©couvrir de nouvelles rÃ©gularitÃ©s, plutÃ´t que de rassembler simplement des informations de maniÃ¨re passive. A partir dâ€™une perspective Ã©volutionaire, lâ€™apprentissage a Ã©voluÃ© par adaptation aux changements rapides et environnementaux qui ne peuvent Ãªtre efficacement traduits par les processus Ã©volutifs lents et de long terme qui se situent au niveau gÃ©nÃ©tique. La â€œraison dâ€™Ãªtreâ€ Ã©volutionaire de lâ€™apprentissage est de permettre aux individus de chercher sans cesse Ã dÃ©couvrir de nouvelles rÃ©gularitÃ©s et dâ€™agir sur elles de maniÃ¨re appropriÃ©e. De mÃªme que lâ€™apprentissage dÃ©pend des jugements esthÃ©tiques, la sÃ©lection Ã©volutionaire pour lâ€™apprentissage implique une matrice Ã©volutionaire du sens esthÃ©tique, et une prÃ©fÃ©rence pour des modÃ¨les et des actions stÃ©rÃ©otypÃ©es qui en fin de compte conduisent Ã la formation de coutumes et dâ€™une comprÃ©hension sociale. Lâ€™article est, ainsi, une prÃ©sentation Ã©volutionaire Ã©tayÃ©e des tendances â€œbehavioralesâ€ sous-tendant ma thÃ©orie des coutumes. The nature of learning processes as well as evolutionary considerations suggest that aesthetic judgement is of central importance in the formation of custom. Learning and extrapolation rely on evaluations of non-instrumental features like simplicity, analogy, straightforwardness, and clarity. Further, learning is particularly effective if it is driven by an active desire to uncover new regularities, rather than merely gathering information in a passive way. From an evolutionary perspective, learning has evolved as an adaptation to fast and transitory environmental changes which cannot be effectively traced by the slow and long-term evolutionary processes which take place on the genetic level. The evolutionary raison dâ€™Ãªtre of learning is to enable the individual to incessantly search for upcoming new regularities, and to act appropriately on them. As learning depends on aesthetic judgement, the evolutionary selection for learning implies an evolutionary molding of an aesthetic sense, and a preference for patterns and patterned action which ultimately leads to the formation of custom and social learning. The paper presents, thus, an evolutionary underpinning for the behavioral tendencies underlying my theory of custom.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by De Gruyter in its journal Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines.
Volume (Year): 10 (2000)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
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