Determination of Import Demand in Pakistan: The Role of Expenditure Components
AbstractThe paper uses imperfect substitution approach to derive the aggregate import demand function on the basis of disaggregated expenditure components. This derived import demand function is then empirically tested for Pakistan by using co-integration and error correction mechanism. The empirical results show that elasticity of import demand with respect to different macro components of final expenditure is different. The import demand in Pakistan is affected positively and significantly by all expenditure components. The relative prices have negative but insignificant relationship with import demand in Pakistan. The findings indicate that use of aggregate expenditure variable in the aggregate import demand function leads to aggregation bias because different macro components of final expenditure have different import contents. The model derived in this study provides indepth guidelines for macroeconomic policy decisions in order to overcome the problem of persistent trade deficit in the country.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER in its journal Theoretical and Applied Economics.
Volume (Year): XVIII(2011) (2011)
Issue (Month): 8(561) (August)
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Bucharest, Calea Griviţei nr. 21, sector 1, 010702
Phone: +40 21 3 12 22 48
Fax: +40 21 3 12 97 17
Web page: http://www.asociatiaeconomistilor.ro/
More information through EDIRC
import demand; expenditure components; relative prices; trade deficit.;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
- Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & Abera Gelan, 2007. "On the Relation between Nominal Devaluation and Real Devaluation: Evidence from African Countries," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 16(2), pages 177-197, March.
- Houthakker, Hendrik S & Magee, Stephen P, 1969. "Income and Price Elasticities in World Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 51(2), pages 111-25, May.
- Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
- Mah, Jai S., 2000. "An empirical examination of the disaggregated import demand of Korea--the case of information technology products," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 237-244.
- Khan, Mohsin S, 1975. "The Structure and Behavior of Imports of Venezuela," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 57(2), pages 221-24, May.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
- Goldstein, Morris & Khan, Mohsin S., 1985. "Income and price effects in foreign trade," Handbook of International Economics, in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 20, pages 1041-1105 Elsevier.
- Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
- Charalambos Pattichis, 1999. "Price and income elasticities of disaggregated import demand: results from UECMs and an application," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(9), pages 1061-1071.
- Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
- Isard, Peter, 1977. "How Far Can We Push the "Law of One Price"?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(5), pages 942-48, December.
- Sarmad, Khwaja, 1989. "The determinants of import demand in Pakistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(10), pages 1619-1625, October.
- Amelia Santos-Paulino & A. P. Thirlwall, 2004. "The impact of trade liberalisation on exports, imports and the balance of payments of developing countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(493), pages F50-F72, 02.
- Khan , Shahrukh R. & Aftab, Safiya, 1996. "Devaluation and the Balance of Trade: A Policy Analysis for Pakistan," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio di Genova, vol. 49(2), pages 247-260.
- Azam, Rauf i & Batool, Iram & Imran, Rabia & Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Hunjra, Ahmed Imran & Jasra, Javed Mahmood, 2010. "Financial crises and economic growth in Pakistan: a time series analysis," MPRA Paper 40691, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Pervaiz, Zahid & Jan, Sajjad Ahmad & Ali, Amjad & Chaudhary, Amatul R., 2011. "Poverty, inflation and economic growth: empirical evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 34290, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2011.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Socol Cristian).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.