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Two Paradigms and Nobel Prizes in Economics: A Contradiction or Coexistence?

Author

Listed:
  • Haim Levy
  • Enrico De Giorgi
  • Thorsten Hens

Abstract

Markowitz and Sharpe won the Nobel Prize in Economics more than a decade ago for the development of Mean-Variance analysis and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). In the year 2002, Kahneman won the Nobel Prize in Economics for the development of Prospect Theory. Can these two apparently contradictory paradigms coexist? In deriving the CAPM, Sharpe, Lintner and Mossin assume expected utility (EU) maximization following the approach proposed by Markowitz, normal distributions and risk aversion. Kahneman & Tversky suggest Prospect Theory (PT) and Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT) as an alternative paradigm to EU theory. They show that investors distort probabilities, make decisions based on change of wealth, exhibit loss aversion and maximize the expectation of an S-shaped value function which contains a risk-seeking segment. Employing change of wealth rather than total wealth contradicts EU theory. The subjective distortion of probabilities violates the CAPM assumptions of normality and homogeneous expectations, and the S-shaped value function violates the risk aversion assumption. We prove in this paper that although CPT (and PT) is in conflict to EUT, and violates some of the CAPM�s underlying assumptions, the security market line theorem (SMLT) of the CAPM is intact in the CPT framework.

Suggested Citation

  • Haim Levy & Enrico De Giorgi & Thorsten Hens, "undated". "Two Paradigms and Nobel Prizes in Economics: A Contradiction or Coexistence?," IEW - Working Papers 161, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
  • Handle: RePEc:zur:iewwpx:161
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    Cited by:

    1. Kamal, Javed Bin, 2012. "Optimal portfolio selection in ex ante stock price bubble and furthermore bubble burst scenario from Dhaka stock exchange with relevance to sharpe’s single index model," MPRA Paper 60610, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Bruno S. Frey & Alois Stutzer, "undated". "Direct Democracy: Designing a Living Constitution," IEW - Working Papers 167, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
    3. Bruno Frey, 2005. "‘‘Just forget it.’’ Memory distortions as bounded rationality," Mind & Society: Cognitive Studies in Economics and Social Sciences, Springer;Fondazione Rosselli, vol. 4(1), pages 13-25, June.
    4. Pasquariello, Paolo, 2014. "Prospect Theory and market quality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 276-310.
    5. Bruno S. Frey & Simon Luechinger & Alois Stutzer, 2007. "Calculating Tragedy: Assessing The Costs Of Terrorism," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(1), pages 1-24, February.
    6. Enrico De Giorgi & Stefan Reimann, "undated". "The ?-Beauty Contest: Choosing Numbers, Thinking Intervals," IEW - Working Papers 183, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Capital Asset Pricing Model; Prospect Theory;

    JEL classification:

    • C62 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
    • D51 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Exchange and Production Economies
    • D52 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Incomplete Markets
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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