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Der unitarische Bundesstaat in Deutschland: Pfadabhängigkeit und Wandel

  • Lehmbruch, Gerhard
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    Die Eigenart des deutschen Föderalismus erschließt sich in einer historischen Analyse der bundesstaatlichen Institutionen. Dabei wird ein hohes Maß an Pfadabhängigkeit sichtbar, die ihre Persistenz über einen langen Zeitraum hinweg der Ko-Evolution von politisch-kulturellen Orientierungen (Unitarismus) und institutionellen Arrangements verdankte. Die institutionellen Arrangements entfalteten sich sukzessive über mehrere Entwicklungssequenzen hinweg, die in einer Abfolge komplementärer institutioneller Weichenstellungen (1849, 1867/1871, 1919, 1945-1949) ein System von zunehmender, überaus veränderungsresistenter Komplexität hervorbrachten. Die Langfristanalyse führt zu dem Schluss, dass der institutionelle Kern des komplex verflochtenen unitarischen Bundesstaates, wie das Ergebnis dieses Entwicklungspfades genannt worden ist, weiterhin eine durch Pfadabhängigkeit bedingte Resistenz gegen institutional engineering aufweist. Die unitarischen politisch-kulturellen Orientierungen hingegen, die seit der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts zur Selbstreproduktion dieses Entwicklungspfades beitrugen und deren Bezugsrahmen der Nationalstaat war, werden in zunehmendem Maße obsolet. Dies könnte Veränderungsspielräume eröffnen, die sich am Dezentralisierungsparadigma orientieren.

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    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in its series MPIfG Discussion Paper with number 02/2.

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    Date of creation: 2002
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:mpifgd:022
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    1. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416.
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    3. Andrea Bassanini & Giovanni Dosi, 1999. "When and How Chance and Human Will Can Twist the Arms of Clio," LEM Papers Series 1999/05, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    4. Arthur T. Denzau & Douglass C. North, 1993. "Shared Mental Models: Ideologies and Institutions," Economic History 9309003, EconWPA.
    5. Deeg, Richard, 2001. "Institutional change and the uses and limits of path dependency: The case of German finance," MPIfG Discussion Paper 01/6, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
    6. David, Paul A, 1985. "Clio and the Economics of QWERTY," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 332-37, May.
    7. Hall, Peter A. & Taylor, Rosemary C. R., 1996. "Political science and the three new institutionalisms," MPIfG Discussion Paper 96/6, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
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