The changed role of the lender of last resort: Crisis responses of the Federal Reserve, European Central Bank and Bank of England
This paper analyzes whether the Lender of Last Resort function has changed in consequence of the recent Global Financial Crisis. The unprecedented emergency actions of the Federal Reserve, European Central Bank and the Bank of England are analyzed in terms of Walter Bagehot's traditional Lender of Last Resort doctrine. The central banks' actions are compared to identify the extensions and paint a general picture of the modern and much more comprehensive Lender of Last Resort function, which includes provision of liquidity and collateral, lowering interest rates and expansionary monetary policy, loosening collateral standards, supporting critical institutions, opening special liquidity facilities that target specific markets or groups of agents, and becoming market maker of last resort and buyer of last resort. The Lender of Last Resort function has been found to have changed.
|Date of creation:||2013|
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