Coin migration within the euro area
This paper analyses how many euro coins outflow from Germany and which composition of coins is to be expected in the long run. To this end, a simple mathematical model is formulated and calibrated for €1 coins. The introduction of the euro coins in 2002 presented a unique opportunity to analyse the cross-border migration and the mixing process of coins in different euro-area countries. Based on research by Stoyan and depending on growth assumptions, the annual outflow of German €1 coins is calculated to lie somewhere between 4% and 5%. In the long run, the ratio of German €1 coins in Germany is likely to converge to around 50%.
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- Dietrich Stoyan & Helga Stoyan & Gunter Döge, 2004. "Statistical Analyses and Modelling of the Mixing Process of Euro Coins in Germany and Europe," Australian & New Zealand Journal of Statistics, Australian Statistical Publishing Association Inc., vol. 46(1), pages 67-77, 03.
- Ernst Baltensperger & Thomas J. Jordan, 1997. "Principles of Seigniorage," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 133(II), pages 133-152, June.
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