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Firm Performance in Bulgaria and Estonia: The effects of competitive pressure and disorganization


  • Jozef Konings


This paper is concerned with the analysis of firm performance, measured as total factor productivity, using a panel of over 1200 Bulgarian and 200 Estonian firms. The main empirical conclusions are (i) higher Financial and competitive pressure improves firm performance in Bulgaria; (ii) disorganization, measured by complexity of a sector, has a negative effect on productivity growth in Bulgaria; (iii) in Estonia there no evidence can be found that Financial pressure, competitive pressure nor disorganization has any effect on firm performance, suggesting that these factors only matter at the start of transition to a market economy.

Suggested Citation

  • Jozef Konings, 1998. "Firm Performance in Bulgaria and Estonia: The effects of competitive pressure and disorganization," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 185, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  • Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:1998-185

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    Cited by:

    1. Carlin, Wendy & Schaffer, Mark & Seabright, Paul, 2003. "Infrastructure, Competition and Innovation : New Survey Evidence from Transition," IDEI Working Papers 243, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.

    More about this item


    financial pressure; competitive pressure; disorganization; firm performance;

    JEL classification:

    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
    • O5 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies

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