Are Asset-Demand Functions Determined by CAPM?
The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPH) says that the responsiveness of asset-demands to expected returns depends (inversely) on the variance-covariance matrix of returns, rather than being an arbitrary set of parameters.Previous tests of CAPM have usually computed covariances of returns around sample means, and then checked whether the riskier assets are those with the higher mean returns. We offer a new technique for testing CAPM. The technique requires the use of time series data on actual asset-holdings, and non-linear maximum likelihood estimation. We claim superiority to earlier tests on three grounds. (1) We allow expected returns to vary freely overtime.(2) The alternative hypothesis is well-specified: asset-demands are linear functions of expected returns that do not depend on the variance-covariance matrix.(3) The test-statistic has a known distribution; it is simply a likelihood ratio test. We try the technique on yearly data, 1954-1980, for household holdings of a portfolio of six assets: short-term bills and deposits, tangible assets, federal debt, state and local debt, corporate debt, and equities. Our test rejects the CAPM hypothesis.
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- Friend, Irwin & Blume, Marshall E, 1975. "The Demand for Risky Assets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(5), pages 900-922, December.
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- Benjamin M. Friedman & V. Vance Roley, 1979. "A Note on the Derivation of Linear Homogeneous Asset Demand Functions," NBER Working Papers 0345, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ross, Stephen A, 1978. "The Current Status of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 33(3), pages 885-901, June.
- Gibbons, Michael R., 1982. "Multivariate tests of financial models : A new approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 3-27, March.
- William D. Nordhaus & Steven N. Durlauf, 1982. "The Structure of Social Risk," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 648, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Jeffrey A. Frankel & Charles Engel, 1982.
"Do Asset-Demand Functions Optimize over the Mean and Variance of Real Returns? A Six-Currency Test,"
NBER Working Papers
1051, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Frankel, Jeffrey & Engel, Charles M., 1984. "Do asset-demand functions optimize over the mean and variance of real returns? A six-currency test," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3-4), pages 309-323, November.
- Blume, Marshall E & Friend, Irwin, 1973. "A New Look at the Capital Asset Pricing Model," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 28(1), pages 19-33, March.
- Merton, Robert C, 1973. "An Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(5), pages 867-87, September.
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