IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Key factors and barriers to the adoption of cold ironing in europe

Listed author(s):
  • Giulia Arduino


    (Dipartimento di Economia e Metodi Quantitativi, Università degli Studi di Genova)

  • David G. Carrillo Murillo


    (Institut für Wirtschaftspolitik und Wirtschaftsforschung, Karslruhe Institute of Technology (KIT))

  • David G. Claudio Ferrari


    (Dipartimento di Economia e Metodi Quantitativi, Università degli Studi di Genova)

The first cases of successful implementation of cold ironing can be found in Alaska about twenty years ago. In that case, the energy cost was lower than in Europe where cold ironing has been developed only in the latest years at few ports. The present paper investigates the innovative process of cold ironing at European level. Firstly, its recent development in Europe is documented as well as the main concern of its corresponding legislation. Then, the adoption of this initiative by the “green ports” concept is discussed. Secondly, the technical barriers, such as lack of standardization of electricity parameters are mentioned. And given that port electrical infrastructure needed onshore represents a huge investment that not all ports are financially able to do, the financial problematic is treated explicitly taking into account the cost of energy at ports (directly provided by electric centrals or converted) against the energy cost onboard. Finally, conclusions are drawn covering the main barriers confronted by this technology and the future premises of cold ironing at European ports considering the social and environmental benefits in terms of air and noise pollution.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
File Function: First version,
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by SIET Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica in its series Working Papers with number 11_15.

in new window

Length: 11 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision: 2011
Handle: RePEc:sit:wpaper:11_15
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Viale Kennedy, n. 4, 43100 Parma, Italy

Phone: ++39 0657335294
Fax: ++39 0657335282
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

No references listed on IDEAS
You can help add them by filling out this form.

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sit:wpaper:11_15. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Edoardo Marcucci)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.