IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Key factors and barriers to the adoption of cold ironing in europe


  • Giulia Arduino

    () (Dipartimento di Economia e Metodi Quantitativi, Università degli Studi di Genova)

  • David G. Carrillo Murillo

    () (Institut für Wirtschaftspolitik und Wirtschaftsforschung, Karslruhe Institute of Technology (KIT))

  • David G. Claudio Ferrari

    () (Dipartimento di Economia e Metodi Quantitativi, Università degli Studi di Genova)


The first cases of successful implementation of cold ironing can be found in Alaska about twenty years ago. In that case, the energy cost was lower than in Europe where cold ironing has been developed only in the latest years at few ports. The present paper investigates the innovative process of cold ironing at European level. Firstly, its recent development in Europe is documented as well as the main concern of its corresponding legislation. Then, the adoption of this initiative by the “green ports” concept is discussed. Secondly, the technical barriers, such as lack of standardization of electricity parameters are mentioned. And given that port electrical infrastructure needed onshore represents a huge investment that not all ports are financially able to do, the financial problematic is treated explicitly taking into account the cost of energy at ports (directly provided by electric centrals or converted) against the energy cost onboard. Finally, conclusions are drawn covering the main barriers confronted by this technology and the future premises of cold ironing at European ports considering the social and environmental benefits in terms of air and noise pollution.

Suggested Citation

  • Giulia Arduino & David G. Carrillo Murillo & David G. Claudio Ferrari, 2011. "Key factors and barriers to the adoption of cold ironing in europe," Working Papers 11_15, SIET Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica, revised 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:sit:wpaper:11_15

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: First version,
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Kevin Cullinane & Sharon Cullinane, 2013. "Atmospheric Emissions from Shipping: The Need for Regulation and Approaches to Compliance," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(4), pages 377-401, July.

    More about this item


    cold ironing; energy cost; technology barrier; European ports; environmenta;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sit:wpaper:11_15. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Edoardo Marcucci). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.