IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Determinants of Local Currency Bonds and Foreign Holdings: Implications for Bond Market Development in the People’s Republic of China


  • Bae, Kee-Hong

    () (Schulich School of Business, York University)


This case study explores which variables—macroeconomic, institutional, and capital controls—are most important in explaining cross-country differences in bond market development. It uses the ratio of amount of local currency bonds outstanding over GDP as a measure of bond market development from 43 countries during 1990–2009. The study examines government and corporate bond markets separately, as the characteristics of these markets are substantially different and requires separate examination. Main findings are derived from the comparative analysis. Several policy implications drawn from the findings are pertinent to the People‘s Republic of China (PRC) bond market. The most important implication is that the way to develop fixed income markets is to start with the government bond market. Another important implication from the empirical findings is that mature and well-developed banking sector is critically important to the further development of bond market, particularly to the corporate bond market. While the PRC bond market has developed significantly over recent years, there is much room for improvement. This report provides policy suggestions, albeit not necessarily from empirical findings, to further develop PRC bond markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Bae, Kee-Hong, 2012. "Determinants of Local Currency Bonds and Foreign Holdings: Implications for Bond Market Development in the People’s Republic of China," Working Papers on Regional Economic Integration 97, Asian Development Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:adbrei:0097

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Timothy J. Sturgeon, 2003. "What really goes on in Silicon Valley? Spatial clustering and dispersal in modular production networks," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(2), pages 199-225, April.
    2. Prema-Chandra Athukorala, 2008. "Singapore And Asean In The New Regional Division Of Labor," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 53(03), pages 479-508.
    3. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2005. "Outsourcing in a Global Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(1), pages 135-159.
    4. Ronald Jones; Henryk Kierzkowski; Chen Lurong, 2004. "What does the evidence tell us about fragmentation and outsourcing," IHEID Working Papers 09-2004, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    5. Soloaga, Isidro & Alan Wintersb, L., 2001. "Regionalism in the nineties: what effect on trade?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-29, March.
    6. Robert C. Feenstra, 1998. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 31-50, Fall.
    7. Prema-chandra Athukorala, 2009. "The Rise of China and East Asian Export Performance: Is the Crowding-Out Fear Warranted?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(2), pages 234-266, February.
    8. repec:wsi:wschap:9789812798091_0017 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 2009. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Globalization And International Trade Policies, chapter 17, pages 623-687 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    10. Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Imperfect competition and international trade: Evidence from fourteen industrial countries," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 62-81, March.
    11. Robert E. Baldwin & L. Alan Winters, 2004. "Challenges to Globalization: Analyzing the Economics," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bald04-1, January.
    12. Kei-Mu Yi, 2003. "Can Vertical Specialization Explain the Growth of World Trade?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(1), pages 52-102, February.
    13. Robert C. Feenstra & Robert E. Lipsey & Haiyan Deng & Alyson C. Ma & Hengyong Mo, 2005. "World Trade Flows: 1962-2000," NBER Working Papers 11040, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Young, Allyn A., 1928. "Increasing Returns and Economic Progress," History of Economic Thought Articles, McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought, vol. 38, pages 527-542.
    15. Prema-chandra Athukorala & Nobuaki Yamashita, 2009. "Global Production Sharing and Sino-US Trade Relations," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 17(3), pages 39-56.
    16. Stephen S. Golub & Ronald W. Jones & Henryk Kierzkowski, 2007. "Globalization and Country-Specific Service Links," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 63-88.
    17. Prema-chandra Athukorala & Suphat Suphachalasai, 2004. "Post-crisis Export Performance in Thailand," Departmental Working Papers 2004-04, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    18. David Hummels, 2007. "Transportation Costs and International Trade in the Second Era of Globalization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 131-154, Summer.
    19. Prema-chandra Athukorala, 2005. "Product Fragmentation and Trade Patterns in East Asia," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 4(3), pages 1-27, Fall.
    20. Limao, Nuno & Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Infrastructure, geographical disadvantage, and transport costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2257, The World Bank.
    21. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
    22. Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Fragmentation and multinational production," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 935-945, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ememar:v:32:y:2017:i:c:p:148-167 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    PRC bond market; debt securities; determinants; regulatory and legal infrastructure; off-shore CNY bonds;

    JEL classification:

    • E63 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy; Stabilization; Treasury Policy
    • E65 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
    • G14 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G24 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Investment Banking; Venture Capital; Brokerage
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • N20 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions - - - General, International, or Comparative

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ris:adbrei:0097. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ivan B. de Leon). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.