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When you are born matters: the impact of date of birth on educational outcomes in England

Author

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  • Claire Crawford

    () (Institute for Fiscal Studies, 7 Ridgmount Street, London, WC1E 7AE; Institute of Education, University of London, 20 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AL, UK.)

  • Lorraine Dearden

    () (Institute for Fiscal Studies, 7 Ridgmount Street, London, WC1E 7AE; Institute of Education, University of London, 20 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AL, UK.)

  • Costas Meghir

    () (University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT; Institute for Fiscal Studies, 7 Ridgmount Street, London, WC1E 7AE)

Abstract

Accurate estimates of the extent of ethnic parity amongst benefit claimants are very important for policymakers who provide interventions for these groups. We use new administrative data on benefit claimants in Great Britain to document differences in labour market outcomes between Ethnic Minority and White claimants, both before and after controlling for rich observable characteristics. We do so using a variety of methods, from OLS to propensity score matching to difference-in-differences. We find that, in many cases, Minorities and Whites are simply too different for satisfactory estimates to be calculated, and that results are sensitive to the methodology used. This calls into question previous results based on simple regression techniques, which may hide the fact that observationally different ethnic groups are being compared by parametric extrapolation. For Income Support and Incapacity Benefit claimants, however, we could calculate satisfactory results. For these groups, large and significant raw penalties almost always disappear once we appropriately control for pre-inflow characteristics.

Suggested Citation

  • Claire Crawford & Lorraine Dearden & Costas Meghir, 2010. "When you are born matters: the impact of date of birth on educational outcomes in England," DoQSS Working Papers 10-09, Department of Quantitative Social Science - UCL Institute of Education, University College London.
  • Handle: RePEc:qss:dqsswp:1009
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Christian Dustmann & Tommaso Frattini & Gianandrea Lanzara, 2012. "Educational achievement of second‐generation immigrants: an international comparison," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 27(69), pages 143-185, January.
    2. Jouni Kuha & John H. Goldthorpe, 2010. "Path analysis for discrete variables: the role of education in social mobility," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 173(2), pages 351-369.
    3. Kristen, Cornelia & Granato, Nadia, 2007. "The educational attainment of the second generation in Germany : social origins and ethnic inequality," IAB Discussion Paper 200704, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
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    Cited by:

    1. Rasmus Landersø & Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen, 2013. "School Starting Age and Crime," Economics Working Papers 2013-03, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    2. Meyer, Tobias & Thomsen, Stephan L. & Schneider, Heidrun, 2015. "New Evidence on the Effects of the Shortened School Duration in the German States: An Evaluation of Post-Secondary Education Decisions," IZA Discussion Papers 9507, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Meyer, Tobias & Thomsen, Stephan L., 2012. "How Important is Secondary School Duration for Post-school Education Decisions? Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-509, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    4. Martin Foureaux Koppensteiner, 2016. "Relative Age, Class Assignment and Academic Performance: Evidence from Brazilian Primary Schools," Discussion Papers in Economics 16/10, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
    5. Buscha, Franz & Dickson, Matt, 2015. "The Wage Returns to Education over the Life-Cycle: Heterogeneity and the Role of Experience," IZA Discussion Papers 9596, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Denny, Kevin & Oppedisano, Veruska, 2013. "The surprising effect of larger class sizes: Evidence using two identification strategies," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 57-65.
    7. Dickson, Matt & Smith, Sarah, 2011. "What determines the return to education: An extra year or a hurdle cleared?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1167-1176.
    8. Ponzo, Michela & Scoppa, Vincenzo, 2014. "The long-lasting effects of school entry age: Evidence from Italian students," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, pages 578-599.
    9. Patrizia Ordine & Giuseppe Rose & Daniela Sposato, 2014. "Gift Of Time And Family Gift: The Effect Of Early School Entry On Pupils Performance," Working Papers 201408, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF.
    10. Suziedelyte, Agne & Zhu, Anna, 2015. "Does early schooling narrow outcome gaps for advantaged and disadvantaged children?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 76-88.
    11. Elliott Fan & Jin-Tan Liu & Yen-Chien Chen, 2014. "Is the 'Quarter of Birth' Endogenous? Evidence From One Million Siblings in Taiwan," NBER Working Papers 20444, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Devereux, Paul J. & Fan, Wen, 2011. "Earnings returns to the British education expansion," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 1153-1166.
    13. repec:wly:econjl:v:127:y:2017:i:602:p:1096-1118 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Meyer, Tobias & Thomsen, Stephan, 2015. "New Evidence on the Effects of the Shortened School Duration in the German States - An Evaluation of Post-School Education Decisions," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112910, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    15. Duncan McVicar & Julie Moschion & Chris Ryan, 2013. "Right Peer, Right Now? Endogenous Peer Effects and Achievement in Victorian Primary Schools," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2013n22, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    16. Rasmus Landersø & Helena Skyt Nielsen & Marianne Simonsen, 2017. "School Starting Age and the Crime‐age Profile," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 127(602), pages 1096-1118, June.
    17. Peña, Pablo A., 2017. "Creating winners and losers: Date of birth, relative age in school, and outcomes in childhood and adulthood," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 152-176.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    higher education; widening participation; socio-economic disadvantage; administrative data;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy

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