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Money and Loans


  • Dan Bernhardt


The conditions under which money is essential to support a Pareto optimum, those where loan mechanisms suffice, and those such that both are essential is examined. In the absence of a coincidence of wants, loans and/or money are necessary to facilitate exchange. In a large economy with a limited communication technology, the expected consequences to reneging are insufficient for the repayment of the utility maximizing level of loans to be time consistent. In contrast, redeemability of money is not associated with a particular agent so money has no time consistency problems. Consequently, in large economies money is essential. If, additionally, individual Clower constraints bind, loans and money are both essential.

Suggested Citation

  • Dan Bernhardt, 1985. "Money and Loans," Working Papers 643, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:qed:wpaper:643

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. James W. Friedman, 1971. "A Non-cooperative Equilibrium for Supergames," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 38(1), pages 1-12.
    2. Chappell, Henry W, Jr, 1983. "Presidential Popularity and Macroeconomic Performance: Are Voters Really So Naive?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 385-392, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jafarey, Saqib & Rupert, Peter, 2001. "Limited Commitment, Money, and Credit," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 99(1-2), pages 22-58, July.
    2. Hancock, Diana & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Payment transactions, instruments, and systems: A survey," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(11-12), pages 1573-1624, December.
    3. Li, Ying-Syuan & Li, Yiting, 2013. "Liquidity and asset prices: A new monetarist approach," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(4), pages 426-438.
    4. Xavier Cuadras-Morató, 2009. "Circulation Of Private Notes During A Currency Shortage," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 77(4), pages 461-478, July.
    5. repec:dau:papers:123456789/3515 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Wang, Yong & Zhou, Hanqing, 2001. "Money and credit in liquidity provision," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(11), pages 2041-2067, November.

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