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A Systematic Assessment of Employer Equal Employment Opportunity Efforts as a Means of Reducing the Gender Earnings Gap


  • Graham, Mary E.
  • Hotchkiss, Julie L.


A gender earnings gap has persisted for many years in the United States. This gap is somewhat remarkable in light of reductions in gender-related occupational segregation, the narrowing of human capital differences between women and men, and government and employer-initiated efforts to enhance opportunities for women. In this article we argue that federal employment laws and current oversight mechanisms help maintain the gender earnings gap by encouraging small, separate, parts: pay discrimination, hiring discrimination, and job placement discrimination (including discrimination in promotions).

Suggested Citation

  • Graham, Mary E. & Hotchkiss, Julie L., 2002. "A Systematic Assessment of Employer Equal Employment Opportunity Efforts as a Means of Reducing the Gender Earnings Gap," MPRA Paper 9310, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:9310

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Moore, Robert E., 1996. "Ranking income distributions using the Geometric Mean and a related general measure," MPRA Paper 10171, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Patrick Ronald Edwards, 1991. "Choices That Increase Compliance," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 10(4), pages 6-27, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Graham, Mary E. & Hotchkiss, Julie L., 2009. "A More Proactive Approach to Addressing Gender-related Employment Disparities in the United States," MPRA Paper 44795, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    discrimination; equal employment opportunity;

    JEL classification:

    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination


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