Japan’s foreign aid sanctions policy toward African countries
This paper examines Japan’s aid sanctions policy toward African countries since new guidelines for Japanese ODA were introduced. There were three cases of positive reinforcement in Africa, i.e. in Madagascar, Zambia) and Guinea. Also, the Japanese government implemented nine negative reinforcements in the region, i.e. in Kenya, Zaire, Malawi, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Togo, Nigeria and Gambia. Although Japan applied positive reinforcement and provided additional foreign aid to assist the political and economic reforms in three African countries, it would be an oversimplification to say that these “positive reinforcement” methods have effectively contributed to the improvement of the political situations in these countries. On the other hand, whether Japan’s and other aid donors’ measures of the “negative reinforcement” have effectively contributed to the improvement of the political situation in African countries remains as a contentious issue.
|Date of creation:||26 Nov 2007|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Howard Stein, 1998. "Japanese aid to Africa: Patterns, motivation and the role of structural adjustment," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(2), pages 27-53.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:5947. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.