Indian agriculture and food security: problem and prospects
Agriculture plays an important role in the process of economic development of less developed countries like India. Besides providing food to nation, agriculture releases labour, provides saving, contributes to market of industrial goods and earns foreign exchange. Agricultural development is an integral part of overall economic development. In India, agriculture was the main source of national income and occupation at the time of Independence. Agriculture and allied activities contributed nearly 50 per cent to India’s national income. Around 72 percent of total working population was engaged in agriculture. Though Indian agriculture is very important, but it largely depends on the climate and weather conditions. India has Monsoon climate in which a year has been divided into two distinct seasons of summer and winter. Rainfall occurs mainly in summer. Solar radiation, temperature, and precipitation are the main drive of crop growth; therefore, agriculture has always been highly dependent on climate patterns and variations. It is clear that India’s agricultural sector has made huge strides in developing its potential. The green revolution massively increased the production of vital food grains and introduced technological innovations into agriculture. This progress is manifested in India’s net trade position. Where once India had to depend on imports to feed its people, since 1990 it is a net exporter of agri-food products. Its agriculture is large and diverse and its sheer size means that even slight changes in its trade have significant effects on world agricultural markets.
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