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Preferential Liberalization, Antidumping, and Safeguards: Stumbling Block Evidence from MERCOSUR

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  • Patricia Tovar

    (Departamento de Economía de la PUCP del Perú)

  • Chad P. Bown

Abstract

Aún no hay un consenso en la literatura sobre acuerdos comerciales con respecto a si la liberalización preferencial conlleva a más o a menos liberalización multilateral. Sin embargo, hasta ahora las investigaciones se han enfocado mayormente en medidas arancelarias de protección a las importaciones. En este estudio desarrollamos medidas de política comercial más completas que incluyen las políticas de barreras temporales al comercio (BTC) de antidumping y salvaguardias; estudios en otros contextos también han mostrado cómo estas políticas pueden erosionar parte de las ganancias de la liberalización comercial que surgen cuando se examinan sólo los aranceles. Examinamos las experiencias de Argentina y Brasil durante la formación del MERCOSUR en 1990-2001, y hallamos que un enfoque exclusivo en aranceles aplicados puede llevar a una caracterización equívoca de la relación entre liberalización preferencial y liberalización hacia países no miembros. Primeramente, cualquier evidencia de “building block” que surge al enfocarse en aranceles durante el periodo en el que MERCOSUR fue sólo un área de libre comercio puede desaparecer cuando también incluimos cambios en la protección a las importaciones que ocurren a través de BTC. Además, hay evidencia de un efecto de “stumbling block” de la liberalización comercial arancelaria para el periodo en el cual MEROCUSR se volvió una unión aduanera, y este resultado tiende a fortalecerse con la inclusión de BTC. Finalmente, también proveemos una primera evaluación empírica sobre si motivos de poder de mercado pueden ayudar a explicar los patrones de los cambios en la protección a las importaciones que se observan en estos escenarios.

Suggested Citation

  • Patricia Tovar & Chad P. Bown, 2016. "Preferential Liberalization, Antidumping, and Safeguards: Stumbling Block Evidence from MERCOSUR," Documentos de Trabajo / Working Papers 2016-423, Departamento de Economía - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
  • Handle: RePEc:pcp:pucwps:wp00423
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    File URL: http://files.pucp.edu.pe/departamento/economia/DDD423.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Keywords

    Antidumping ; Argentina ; Brazil ; MERCOSUR ; Most-favored nation ; Preferential trade agreements ; Safeguards ; Tariffs ; Temporary trade barriers;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations

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