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El problema del empleo en una sociedad sigma


  • Adolfo Figueroa

    () (CENTRUM)


In the Latin American countries, there exists a paradox that is scarcely noticed: in the last decades, the education expansion has been significant, but the degree of inequality has not changed much. Is education a non equalizing system? This paper intends to resolve the paradox. Sigma theory is utilized for that purpose. Sigma is an abstract society, which is capitalist, overpopulated, and socially heterogeneous. In order to establish a set of theoretical relations between education, human capital, and income, a sigma model is constructed. One of the predictions of this model is that, in that set of relations, the individual’s ethnicity matters. This hypothesis is then submitted to the statistical test. The test is carried out using Peruvian data, the 2003 National Survey of Households (ENAHO). The finding is that the prediction is consistent with facts. In a sigma society, therefore, the education system—as it operates now—does not seem to be an equalizing mechanism. In the light of this result, the particular nature of the employment problem in a sigma society is discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Adolfo Figueroa, 2006. "El problema del empleo en una sociedad sigma," Documentos de Trabajo / Working Papers 2006-249, Departamento de Economía - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
  • Handle: RePEc:pcp:pucwps:wp00249

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    Cited by:

    1. Pasquier-Doumer, Laure & Risso Brandon, Fiorella, 2015. "Aspiration Failure: A Poverty Trap for Indigenous Children in Peru?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 208-223.
    2. repec:dau:papers:123456789/12016 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Janina León C., 2012. "Educación, seguridad social y mercados de trabajo en el Perú," Capítulos de Libros PUCP / Chapters of PUCP books, in: Cecilia Garavito & Ismael Muñoz (ed.), EMPLEO Y PROTECCIÓN SOCIAL, edition 1, chapter 10, pages 331-355, Fondo Editorial - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    4. Janina León, 2012. "Calificación y Seguridad Social de la Mano de Obra en México," Working Papers 0612, Universidad Iberoamericana, Department of Economics.
    5. Jesús Palomino Samaniego, 2011. "Efectos Del Incremento De La Remuneracion Mínima Vital Sobre El Empleo Y Los Ingresos Laborales," Documentos de Trabajo / Working Papers 2011-313, Departamento de Economía - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    6. José María Rentería, 2015. "Brechas de ingresos laborales en el Perú urbano: una exploración de la economía informal," Documentos de Trabajo / Working Papers 2015-408, Departamento de Economía - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.

    More about this item


    labor; development; inequality; education;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I39 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Other
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General


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