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Struggling for new lives: Family and fertility policies in the Soviet Union and modern Russia


  • Ekaterina Selezneva

    () (IOS Regensburg)


During the 20th century, Russian women were assigned the triple role of social and political activists, workers, caregivers and mothers. This paper makes an overview of the main steps undertaken first by the Soviet and later by the modern Russian governments to influence family formation models and fertility levels, in order to improve the demographic situation over the period from 1917 until 2015. The overview pays close attention to such measures of demographic policy as marriage and divorce regulation, support of families through family benefits and the tax system, reconciliation of family and work spheres (maternity/paternity leaves, workplace flexibility measures), fertility promotion, childbearing and childcare support, as well as rare reproductive health protection initiatives.

Suggested Citation

  • Ekaterina Selezneva, 2016. "Struggling for new lives: Family and fertility policies in the Soviet Union and modern Russia," Working Papers 355, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
  • Handle: RePEc:ost:wpaper:355

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nikolai Botev, 2008. "'Can policies enhance fertility in Europe?' and questions beyond," Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, vol. 6(1), pages 29-34.
    2. Larisa A. Popova, 2014. "The Results of the Modern Demographic Policy in Russia," International Journal of Regional Development, Macrothink Institute, vol. 1(1), pages 26-38, December.
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    More about this item


    fertility; Russia; family policy;

    JEL classification:

    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy
    • P30 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - General

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