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Microfinance et réduction de la pauvreté en Afrique Subsaharienne : Quels résultats au Mali ?

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  • Yaya Koloma

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

Ce papier a pour but de décrire les faits marquants du secteur de la microfinance au Mali : son contexte, ses caractéristiques, et son articulation avec les politiques publiques de réduction de la pauvreté et des inégalités, notamment de genre. Les nouvelles orientations du financement du développement ont conduit le Mali à considérer le secteur de la microfinance comme l’un des outils majeurs des politiques publiques de lutte contre la pauvreté, en instaurant un cadre réglementaire et une politique nationale de microfinance. Elle toucherait 6,5% de la population totale estimée à 11,6 millions en 2005. Ce taux aurait connu un accroissement de 27,7% entre 2003 et 2005. Sur 1,9 millions de familles maliennes en 2005, la proportion de familles touchées par les services microfinanciers s’élèverait à 38,8%. Les femmes représenteraient 40,3% de la clientèle des institutions de microfinance. Les controverses théoriques et empiriques ont conduit à revoir l’espoir tant suscité de l’efficacité des services de la microfinance en termes de lutte contre la pauvreté et les inégalités de genre. L’étude du cas du Mali, à travers les quelques rares évaluations d’impact qui ont été réalisées, permet de constater que, même si une amélioration certaine des conditions de vie de certains clients ou clientes bénéficiaires des services n’est pas à écarter, une réduction certaine de la pauvreté peut paraître difficile. The purpose of this paper is to describe the outstanding facts of the microfinance’s sector in Mali, its context, its characteristics, and its articulation with the public policies of poverty reduction, and in particular the gender inequalities. The new directions of financial development led Mali to consider the microfinance sector as one of the major tools of the public policies to fight against poverty, and also found a coherent lawful framework and a national microfinance policy. The microfinance (credit and/or saving) touched 6.5% of a global population estimated to 11.6 millions persons in 2005. This rate increased by 27.7% from 2003 to 2005, 1.9 million Malians families in 2005, the proportion of family accessing to the microfinance services would be 38.8%. Women would represent 40.3% and they seem to be the privilege target group of microfinance. The theoretical and empirical controversies should permit to re-examine the so high hope raised by microfinance concerning its effectiveness to reduce poverty and gender inequalities. Through the few evaluations of impact, the Mali’s case study, made it possible to note that even if an incontestable improvement of living conditions of some beneficiaries is not to draw aside, a real reduction of poverty could appears difficult. (Full text in french)

Suggested Citation

  • Yaya Koloma, 2007. "Microfinance et réduction de la pauvreté en Afrique Subsaharienne : Quels résultats au Mali ?," Documents de travail 138, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  • Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:138
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    File URL: http://ged.u-bordeaux4.fr/ceddt138.pdf
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    Cited by:

    1. Ngunza Maniata, Kevin, 2013. "Pauvreté et microfinance au Congo Kinshasa : une approche par l’analyse factorielle discriminante
      [Poverty and microfinance in Congo Kinshasa: a canonical discriminant analysis]
      ," MPRA Paper 51161, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Nov 2013.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G39 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Other

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