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CES Transaction Functions in Macroeconomic Rationing Models


  • Eskil Heinesen

    (Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen)


In recent years a large number of macroeconomic rationing models with smooth CES transaction functions have been estimated. In this paper we examine the derivation of such aggregate transaction functions from assumptions on the distribution of demand and supply across micro markets. Basic assumptions underlying the CES transaction functions are illuminated on the basis of a rather general description of the aggregation problem in models with both goods and labour markets. General properties of transaction functions based on "multiplicative distributional assumptions" are analysed. The widely used CES transaction functions with three arguments are often claimed to be derivable (as approximate relationships) from an assumption of lognormally distributed demands and supplies. One objective of this paper is to point out that the reasoning offered in the literature for this claim is not very clear or rigorous. Another more constructive objective is to show that the CES transaction function with one parameter can be derived on the basis of the Weibull distribution, and that both this function and the more general nested CES transaction function have reasonable properties.

Suggested Citation

  • Eskil Heinesen, 1992. "CES Transaction Functions in Macroeconomic Rationing Models," Discussion Papers 92-07, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:kud:kuiedp:9207

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    2. Hendry, D.F. & Mizon, G.E., 1990. "Evaluating Dynamic Econometric Models By Encompassing The Var," Economics Series Working Papers 99102, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    3. Glenn Stevens & Susan Thorp & John Anderson, 1987. "The Australian Demand Function for Money: Another Look at Stability," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp8701, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    4. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
    5. Ross Milbourne, 1988. "Disequilibrium Buffer Stock Models: A Survey," Working Papers 715, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    6. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    7. Milbourne, Ross, 1988. " Disequilibrium Buffer Stock Models: A Survey," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(3), pages 187-208.
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    Cited by:

    1. Horst Entorf & Henri R. Sneessens, 2000. "Aggregation in models with quantity constraints: The CES aggregation function," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 35-59.
    2. Heinesen, Eskil, 1995. "A macroeconomic rationing model estimated by cointegration techniques and generalized method of moments," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 97-110, April.
    3. Heinesen, Eskil, 1995. "The two-variable CES transaction function in macroeconomic rationing models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 48(3-4), pages 257-265, June.

    More about this item


    general aggregative models; Keynes; theory of aggregate supply; CES;

    JEL classification:

    • E12 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian
    • E23 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Production


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