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Stunted and Distorted Industrialization in Myanmar


  • Kudo, Toshihiro


More than 15 years have passed since Myanmar embarked on its transition from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented one. The purpose of this paper is to provide a bird-eye's view of industrial changes from the 1990s up to 2005. The industrial sector showed a preliminary development in the first half of the 1990s due to an "open door" policy and liberalization measures. However, a brief period of growth failed to effect any changes in the economic fundamentals. The industrial sector still suffers from poor power supplies, limited access to imported raw materials and machinery, exchange rate instability, limited credit, and frequent changes of government regulation. Public ownership is still high in key infrastructure sectors, and has failed to provide sufficient services to private industries. What the government must do first is to get the fundamentals right.

Suggested Citation

  • Kudo, Toshihiro, 2005. "Stunted and Distorted Industrialization in Myanmar," IDE Discussion Papers 38, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  • Handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper38

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    Cited by:

    1. Aung, Kyaw, 2008. "Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in Myanmar," IDE Discussion Papers 148, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    2. Trevor Wilson & Leslie Teo & Masahiro Hori, 2010. "The Impact of Globalization on Economic Development in Myanmar," Chapters, in: Suiwah Leung & Ben Bingham & Matt Davies (ed.),Globalization and Development in the Mekong Economies, chapter 9, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Yoshikazu Kobayashi & Venkatachalam Anbumozhi, . "Oil Stockpiling and Emergency Response Cooperation of East Asia," Books, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA), number 2014-rpr-32 edited by Yoshikazu Kobayashi & Venkatachalam Anbumozhi, septiembr.
    4. Kudo, Toshihiro, 2007. "Border Industry in Myanmar: Turning the Periphery into the Center of Growth," IDE Discussion Papers 122, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    5. San, Thein & Kudo, Toshihiro, 2008. "Myanmar Sugar SMEs: History, Technology, Location and Government Policy," IDE Discussion Papers 147, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    6. Kudo, Toshihiro, 2006. "Myanmar's Economic Relations with China: Can China Support the Myanmar Economy?," IDE Discussion Papers 66, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).

    More about this item


    Myanmar (Burma); Transitional economy; Industry; Industrialization; Industrial policy; Transition to market economy; ミャンマー; 工業化; 産業政策; 市場経済化;

    JEL classification:

    • L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
    • P20 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - General

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