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A journey through the secret history of the Flying Geese Model


  • Kumagai, Satoru


Economic development in East Asia is characterized by the sequential "take-off" of member countries. This multi-tiered economic development in East Asia is often termed the “Flying Geese” pattern of economic development. However, some authors argue that the traditional Flying Geese pattern is not applicable to some industries such as electronics. Here, Japan may no longer be the sole "leading goose", with "followers" such as China (now producing cutting-edge products) having "caught-up". Does this mean that the Flying Geese Model has become "obsolete" in the 21st century? The main objective of this paper is to clarify the two concepts of Flying Geese which now seem confused: (1) application of the pattern of economic development in one specific country, and (2) application of the pattern of economic development to multiple countries in sequence. This paper provides validity checks of Flying Geese Models after differentiating these two concepts more clearly

Suggested Citation

  • Kumagai, Satoru, 2008. "A journey through the secret history of the Flying Geese Model," IDE Discussion Papers 158, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  • Handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper158

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    Cited by:

    1. Jianqing, Ruan & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2010. "Do geese migrate domestically?: Evidence from the Chinese textile and apparel industry," IFPRI discussion papers 1040, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. Naved Hamid & Sarah Hayat, 2012. "The Opportunities and Pitfalls of Pakistan’s Trade with China and Other Neighbors," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 17(Special E), pages 271-292, September.

    More about this item


    East Asia; Southeast Asia; Economic development; Development theory; Flying Geese Model; 東アジア; 東南アジア; 経済発展; 開発論; 雁行型経済発展論;

    JEL classification:

    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F19 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Other
    • N75 - Economic History - - Economic History: Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, and Other Services - - - Asia including Middle East
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General

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