Poverty in Britain in 1904: An Early Social Survey Rediscovered
Until now there have been no national estimates of the extent of poverty in Britain at the turn of the 20th century. This paper introduces a newly-discovered household budget data set for the early 1900s. These data are more representative of urban working households in Britain in the period than any other existing record, although they are not without deficiencies. We use these data to estimate urban poverty in the British Isles in 1904. Applying Bowley’s poverty line we find that about fifteen percent of people in urban working class households had income insufficient to meet minimum needs. This is close to Rowntree’s estimate of primary poverty for York 1899 and in the range that Bowley found in Northern towns in 1912-3. This average masks a heavy concentration of poverty among the unskilled and those with large families.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as 'Poverty in Edwardian Britain' in: Economic History Review, 2011, 64 (1), 52 - 71|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lancaster, G. & Ray, R., 2000.
"International Poverty Comparisons on Unit Record Data of Developing and Developed Countries,"
2000-1, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
- Lancaster, Geoffrey & Ray, Ranjan, 2002. "International Poverty Comparisons on Unit Record Data of Developing and Developed Countries," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 129-39, June.
- Bailey, Roy E & Hatton, Timothy J., 1999.
"Seebohm Rowntree and the Post-War Poverty Puzzle,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
2147, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Ian Gazeley, 1989. "The cost of living for urban workers in late Victorian and Edwardian Britain," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 42(2), pages 207-221, 05.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp3046. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.