IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp14908.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Reforms of an Early Retirement Pathway in Germany and Their Labor Market Effects

Author

Listed:
  • Riphahn, Regina T.

    (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)

  • Schrader, Rebecca

    (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)

Abstract

We investigate the unemployment pathway to retirement in Germany and study the causal effects of two early retirement reforms. Reform 1 (NRA) increased normal retirement age stepwise from 60 to 65. Simultaneously, it became possible to use early retirement with benefit discounts. Reform 2 (ERA) increased the age of early retirement stepwise from 60 to 63. We investigate behavioral responses to the reforms using administrative data and difference-in-differences strategies. We find strong and significant causal effects of both reforms. Individuals postponed retirement, stayed employed longer, postponed unemployment, and shifted to alternative pathways into retirement. The overall use of the retirement system declined by about 1.5 and 2 months per person after each of the two reforms. Individuals with low pension wealth and those who were affected immediately by the reform responded more strongly.

Suggested Citation

  • Riphahn, Regina T. & Schrader, Rebecca, 2021. "Reforms of an Early Retirement Pathway in Germany and Their Labor Market Effects," IZA Discussion Papers 14908, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14908
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://docs.iza.org/dp14908.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lukas Inderbitzin & Stefan Staubli & Josef Zweimüller, 2016. "Extended Unemployment Benefits and Early Retirement: Program Complementarity and Program Substitution," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 253-288, February.
    2. Michael Baker, 2002. "The Retirement Behavior of Married Couples: Evidence from the Spouse's Allowance," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 37(1), pages 1-34.
    3. Mathias Dolls & Carla Krolage, 2019. "The Effects of Early Retirement Incentives on Retirement Decisions," ifo Working Paper Series 291, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    4. Umut Oguzoglu & Cain Polidano & Ha Vu, 2020. "Impacts from Delaying Access to Retirement Benefits on Welfare Receipt and Expenditure: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 96(312), pages 65-86, March.
    5. Hanel, Barbara, 2010. "Financial incentives to postpone retirement and further effects on employment -- Evidence from a natural experiment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 474-486, June.
    6. Kuhn, Andreas & Staubli, Stefan & Wuellrich, Jean-Philippe & Zweimüller, Josef, 2020. "Fatal attraction? Extended unemployment benefits, labor force exits, and mortality," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 191(C).
    7. Geyer, Johannes & Haan, Peter & Hammerschmid, Anna & Peters, Michael, 2020. "Labor Market and Distributional Effects of an Increase in the Retirement Age," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    8. Joshua D. Angrist & Jörn-Steffen Pischke, 2009. "Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist's Companion," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 8769.
    9. Brown, Kristine M., 2013. "The link between pensions and retirement timing: Lessons from California teachers," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 1-14.
    10. Johannes Geyer & Clara Welteke, 2021. "Closing Routes to Retirement for Women: How Do They Respond?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 56(1), pages 311-341.
    11. Cribb, Jonathan & Emmerson, Carl & Tetlow, Gemma, 2016. "Signals matter? Large retirement responses to limited financial incentives," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 203-212.
    12. Kadir Atalay & Garry F. Barrett & Peter Siminski, 2019. "Pension incentives and the joint retirement of couples: evidence from two natural experiments," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 32(3), pages 735-767, July.
    13. Engels, Barbara & Geyer, Johannes & Haan, Peter, 2017. "Pension incentives and early retirement," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 216-231.
    14. Krueger, Alan B & Pischke, Jorn-Steffen, 1992. "The Effect of Social Security on Labor Supply: A Cohort Analysis of the Notch Generation," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 10(4), pages 412-437, October.
    15. Staubli, Stefan & Lalive, Rafael & Magesan, Arvind, 2020. "The Impact of Social Security on Pension Claiming and Retirement: Active vs. Passive Decisions," CEPR Discussion Papers 15120, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Mastrobuoni, Giovanni, 2009. "Labor supply effects of the recent social security benefit cuts: Empirical estimates using cohort discontinuities," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(11-12), pages 1224-1233, December.
    17. Vestad, Ola Lotherington, 2013. "Labour supply effects of early retirement provision," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 98-109.
    18. Oliwia Komada & Pawel Strzelecki & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2019. "A regression discontinuity evaluation of reducing early retirement eligibility in Poland," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 40(2), pages 286-303, February.
    19. Stephan Dlugosz & Gesine Stephan & Ralf A. Wilke, 2014. "Fixing the Leak: Unemployment Incidence before and after a Major Reform of Unemployment Benefits in Germany," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 15(3), pages 329-352, August.
    20. Ralf K. Himmelreicher & Michael Stegmann, 2008. "European Data Watch: New possibilities for socio-economic research through longitudinal data from the Research Data Center of the Federal German Pension Insurance (FDZ-RV)," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 128(4), pages 647-660.
    21. Laura Hospido, 2015. "Pension reform and couples' joint retirement decisions," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 142-142, April.
    22. Hanel, Barbara & Riphahn, Regina T., 2012. "The timing of retirement — New evidence from Swiss female workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 718-728.
    23. Hanel, Barbara, 2012. "The effect of disability pension incentives on early retirement decisions," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 595-607.
    24. Staubli, Stefan & Zweimüller, Josef, 2013. "Does raising the early retirement age increase employment of older workers?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 17-32.
    25. Arthur Seibold, 2020. "Reference Points for Retirement Behavior: Evidence From German Pension Discontinuities," CRC TR 224 Discussion Paper Series crctr224_2020_226, University of Bonn and University of Mannheim, Germany.
    26. Matthias Giesecke, 2018. "The Effect of Benefit Reductions on the Retirement Age: The Heterogeneous Response of Manual and Non‐Manual Workers," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 64(1), pages 213-238, March.
    27. Kadir Atalay & Garry F. Barrett, 2015. "The Impact of Age Pension Eligibility Age on Retirement and Program Dependence: Evidence from an Australian Experiment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 97(1), pages 71-87, March.
    28. repec:iza:izawol:journl:y:2015:p:142 is not listed on IDEAS
    29. Duggan, Mark & Singleton, Perry & Song, Jae, 2007. "Aching to retire? The rise in the full retirement age and its impact on the social security disability rolls," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(7-8), pages 1327-1350, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. De Brouwer, Octave & Tojerow, Ilan, 2022. "Old-Age Unemployment and Labor Supply: An Application to Belgium," IZA Discussion Papers 15628, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Hamed Markazi Moghadam & Patrick A. Puhani & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2023. "Pension Reforms and Couples’ Labour Supply Decisions," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1187, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    3. Rebecca Schrader, 2021. "The causal effect of partial retirement on older workers’ labor force participation," Working Papers 215, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
    4. Christian Merkl, 2022. "Perspektiven zum Bürgergeld [Perspectives on Germany’s Welfare Reform (“Bürgergeld”)]," Wirtschaftsdienst, Springer;ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 102(2), pages 86-89, February.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Regina T. Riphahn & Rebecca Schrader, 2020. "Labor market effects of early retirement reforms," Working Papers 199, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
    2. Todd Morris, 2022. "The unequal burden of retirement reform: Evidence from Australia," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 60(2), pages 592-619, April.
    3. Ye, Han, 2018. "The Effect of Pension Subsidies on Retirement Timing of Older Women: Evidence from a Regression Kink Design," IZA Discussion Papers 11831, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. Geyer, Johannes & Haan, Peter & Hammerschmid, Anna & Peters, Michael, 2020. "Labor Market and Distributional Effects of an Increase in the Retirement Age," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    5. Engels, Barbara & Geyer, Johannes & Haan, Peter, 2017. "Pension incentives and early retirement," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 216-231.
    6. Welteke, Clara & Geyer, Johannes & Haan, Peter, 2016. "Early retirement eligibility and employment behavior: evidence from a cohort based pension reform," VfS Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145783, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    7. Zwick, Thomas & Bruns, Mona & Geyer, Johannes & Lorenz, Svenja, 2022. "Early retirement of employees in demanding jobs: Evidence from a German pension reform," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 22(C).
    8. Etgeton, Stefan & Fischer, Björn & Ye, Han, 2023. "The effect of increasing retirement age on households’ savings and consumption expenditure," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 221(C).
    9. Ardito Chiara, 2021. "The unequal impact of raising the retirement age: Employment response and program substitution," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 10(1), pages 1-37, January.
    10. Kadir Atalay & Garry F. Barrett & Peter Siminski, 2019. "Pension incentives and the joint retirement of couples: evidence from two natural experiments," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 32(3), pages 735-767, July.
    11. Niklas Gohl, 2023. "Working Longer, Working Stronger? The Forward-Looking Effects of Increasing the Retirement Age on (Un)employment Behaviour," Berlin School of Economics Discussion Papers 0013, Berlin School of Economics.
    12. Dolls, Mathias & Krolage, Carla, 2023. "‘Earned, not given’? The effect of lowering the full retirement age on retirement decisions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 223(C).
    13. De Brouwer, Octave & Tojerow, Ilan, 2022. "Old-Age Unemployment and Labor Supply: An Application to Belgium," IZA Discussion Papers 15628, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    14. Frimmel, Wolfgang, 2021. "Later retirement and the labor market re-integration of elderly unemployed workers," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 19(C).
    15. Francesca Carta & Marta De Philippis, 2021. "Working horizon and labour supply: the effect of raising the full retirement age on middle-aged individuals," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1314, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    16. Bernhard Boockmann & Martin Kroczek & Natalie Laub, 2023. "Tightening access to early retirement: who can adapt?," IAW Discussion Papers 142, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
    17. Laub, Natalie & Boockmann, Bernhard & Kroczek, Martin, 2023. "Tightening Access to Early Retirement: Who Can Adapt?," VfS Annual Conference 2023 (Regensburg): Growth and the "sociale Frage" 277625, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    18. Niklas Gohl, 2023. "Working Longer, Working Stronger? The Forward-Looking Effects of Increasing the Retirement Age on (Un)employment Behaviour," CEPA Discussion Papers 63, Center for Economic Policy Analysis.
    19. Leinonen, Taina & Laaksonen, Mikko & Chandola, Tarani & Martikainen, Pekka, 2016. "Health as a predictor of early retirement before and after introduction of a flexible statutory pension age in Finland," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 149-157.
    20. Fürstenau, Elisabeth & Gohl, Niklas & Haan, Peter & Weinhardt, Felix, 2023. "Working life and human capital investment: Causal evidence from a pension reform," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    program substitution; labor force participation; causal effects; early retirement; difference-in-differences; effect heterogeneity;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • J26 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Retirement; Retirement Policies
    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp14908. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Holger Hinte (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/izaaade.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.