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What Do Patent Examiner Inserted Citations Indicate For A Region With Low Absorptive Capacity


  • Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M.


  • Fernández-de-Lucio, Ignacio
  • Perruchas, François
  • Mattsson, Pauline


Most studies of patents citations focus on national or international contexts, especially contexts of high absorptive capacity, and employ examiner citations. We argue that results can vary if we take the region as the context of analysis, especially if it is a region with low absorptive capacity, and if we study applicant citations and examiner-inserted citations separately. Using a sample from the Valencian Community (Spain), we conclude that (i) the use of examiner-inserted citations as a proxy for applicant citations, (ii) the interpretation of non-patent references as indicators of science-industry links, and (iii) the traditional results for geographical localization are not generalizable to all regions with low absorptive capacity.

Suggested Citation

  • Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M. & Fernández-de-Lucio, Ignacio & Perruchas, François & Mattsson, Pauline, 2008. "What Do Patent Examiner Inserted Citations Indicate For A Region With Low Absorptive Capacity," INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) Working Paper Series 200808, INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), revised 27 Apr 2010.
  • Handle: RePEc:ing:wpaper:200808

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Juan Alcácer & Michelle Gittelman, 2006. "Patent Citations as a Measure of Knowledge Flows: The Influence of Examiner Citations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 774-779, November.
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    6. Peter Thompson, 2006. "Patent Citations and the Geography of Knowledge Spillovers: Evidence from Inventor- and Examiner-added Citations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(2), pages 383-388, May.
    7. Criscuolo, Paola & Verspagen, Bart, 2005. "Does it matter where patent citations come from? Inventor versus examiner citations in European patents," Research Memorandum 017, Maastricht University, Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
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    9. Vega-Jurado, Jaider & Gutiérrez-Gracia, Antonio & Fernández-de-Lucio, Ignacio & Manjarrés-Henri­quez, Liney, 2008. "The effect of external and internal factors on firms' product innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 616-632, May.
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    14. Azagra-Caro, Joaquin M. & Archontakis, Fragiskos & Gutierrez-Gracia, Antonio & Fernandez-de-Lucio, Ignacio, 2006. "Faculty support for the objectives of university-industry relations versus degree of R&D cooperation: The importance of regional absorptive capacity," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 37-55, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro & Davide Consoli, 2016. "Knowledge flows, the influence of national R&D structure and the moderating role of public–private cooperation," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 152-172, February.
    2. Azagra-Caro,Joaquín M. & Tur,Elena M., 2014. "Examiner amendments to applications to the european patent office: Procedures, knowledge bases and country specificities," INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) Working Paper Series 201406, INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), revised 12 Jul 2016.
    3. José García-Quevedo & Francisco Mas-Verdú & José Polo-Otero, 2010. "Which firms want PhDs? The effect of the university-industry relationship on the PhD labour market," Working Papers XREAP2010-02, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Mar 2010.
    4. José García-Quevedo & Francisco Mas-Verdú & Daniel Montolio, 2011. "What type of innovative firms acquire knowledge intensive services and from which suppliers?," Working Papers 2011/22, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    5. repec:spr:scient:v:111:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-017-2337-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Azagra-Caro,Joaquín M. & Consoli,Davide, 2013. "Knowledge Flows and Public-Private Cooperation across National Contexts," INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) Working Paper Series 201304, INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), revised 17 Dec 2014.
    7. repec:spr:scient:v:91:y:2012:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-012-0629-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:spr:scient:v:111:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s11192-017-2323-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro, 2012. "Access to universities’ public knowledge: who’s more nationalist?," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 91(3), pages 671-691, June.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital


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