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Covid-19: Impact on the Indian economy


  • S. Mahendra Dev

    (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)

  • Rajeswari Sengupta

    (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)


The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic is an unprecedented shock to the Indian economy. The economy was already in a parlous state before Covid-19 struck. With the prolonged country-wide lockdown, global economic downturn and associated disruption of demand and supply chains, the economy is likely to face a protracted period of slowdown. The magnitude of the economic impact will depend upon the duration and severity of the health crisis, the duration of the lockdown and the manner in which the situation unfolds once the lockdown is lifted. In this paper we describe the state of the Indian economy in the pre-Covid-19 period, assess the potential impact of the shock on various segments of the economy, analyse the policies that have been announced so far by the central government and the Reserve Bank of India to ameliorate the economic shock and put forward a set of policy recommendations for specific sectors.

Suggested Citation

  • S. Mahendra Dev & Rajeswari Sengupta, 2020. "Covid-19: Impact on the Indian economy," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2020-013, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  • Handle: RePEc:ind:igiwpp:2020-013

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Rajeswari Sengupta & Harsh Vardhan, 2017. "Non-performing assets in Indian Banks: This time it is different," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2017-019, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
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    Cited by:

    1. S Rajamohan & J Jenefer & A Sathish, 2021. "Impact of COVID-19 on FMCG Sector," Shanlax International Journal of Management, Shanlax Journals, vol. 8(4), pages 69-74, April.
    2. Vijay Victor & Joshy Joseph Karakunnel & Swetha Loganathan & Daniel Francois Meyer, 2021. "From a Recession to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Inflation–Unemployment Comparison between the UK and India," Economies, MDPI, vol. 9(2), pages 1-19, May.
    3. Sugata Marjit & Gouranga Gopal Das, 2022. "Immunity-Driven Comparative Advantage and Its Palliative Effect on Social Health and Inequality - A Theoretical Perspective," CESifo Working Paper Series 9569, CESifo.
    4. Beyer, Robert C.M. & Franco-Bedoya, Sebastian & Galdo, Virgilio, 2021. "Examining the economic impact of COVID-19 in India through daily electricity consumption and nighttime light intensity," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    5. G.K., Chetan Kumar & K.B., Rangappa & S., Suchitra, 2021. "Analyzing Interlinkages between Financial and Real Estate Sector in the aftermath of COVID-19's Second wave: An Econometric Approach using VECM model," MPRA Paper 112440, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Kumar, Pavan & Singh, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. & Singh, Ram Kumar & Srivastava, Prashant Kumar & Kumar, Manoj & Dubey, Shantanu Kumar & Sah, Uma & Nandan, Rajiv & Singh, Susheel Kumar & Agrawal, Priyanshi , 2021. "Multi-level impacts of the COVID-19 lockdown on agricultural systems in India: The case of Uttar Pradesh," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 187(C).
    7. Anuradha Patnaik, 2022. "Measuring Demand and Supply Shocks From COVID-19: An Industry-Level Analysis for India," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 16(1), pages 76-105, February.
    8. Tomas Baležentis & Mangirdas Morkūnas & Agnė Žičkienė & Artiom Volkov & Erika Ribašauskienė & Dalia Štreimikienė, 2021. "Policies for Rapid Mitigation of the Crisis’ Effects on Agricultural Supply Chains: A Multi-Criteria Decision Support System with Monte Carlo Simulation," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(21), pages 1-31, October.
    9. Ila Patnaik & Rajeswari Sengupta, 2020. "Impact of Covid-19 on Indian economy: An Analysis of fiscal scenarios," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2020-026, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    10. Sacchidananda Mukherjee & Shivani Badola, 2021. "Public Financing of Human Development in India: A Review," Indian Journal of Human Development, , vol. 15(1), pages 62-81, April.
    11. Ghosh, Amlan & Mukherjee, Abhijit, 2020. "COVID-19 and Property-Liability Insurance in India: Impact and Prospect," MPRA Paper 103357, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Pattaphol Yuktadatta & Shunsuke Ono & Mostafa Saidur Rahim Khan & Yoshihiko Kadoya, 2022. "Satisfaction with the COVID-19 Economic Stimulus Policy: A Study of the Special Cash Payment Policy for Residents of Japan," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(6), pages 1-15, March.
    13. Goswami, Binoy & Mandal, Raju & Nath, Hiranya K., 2021. "Covid-19 pandemic and economic performances of the states in India," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 461-479.
    14. Pandey, Radhika & Sapre, Amey & Sinha, Pramod, 2020. "What do we gain from Seasonal Adjustment of the Indian Index of Industrial Production (IIP)?," Working Papers 20/322, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    15. Hagera Dilnashin & Hareram Birla & Vishnu D. Rajput & Chetan Keswani & Surya P. Singh & Tatiana M. Minkina & Saglara S. Mandzhieva, 2021. "Economic Shock and Agri-Sector: Post-COVID-19 Scenario in India," Circular Economy and Sustainability,, Springer.

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    More about this item


    Covid-19; pandemic; economic downturn; aggregate demand; supply chain; informal sector; financial institutions; fiscal policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E2 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment
    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services

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