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Within and Between-Country Value Diversity in Europe: Latent Class Analysis


  • Vladimir Magun

    () (Head of the Unit for Personality Studies at the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of the Laboratory for Comparative Studies of Mass Consciousness at the National Research University Higher School of Economics)

  • Maksim Rudnev

    () (Research fellow at the National Research University Higher School of Economics and at the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences;)

  • Peter Schmidt

    () (National Research University Higher School of Economics (Moscow, Russia). International Laboratory of Socio-Cultural research, The Co-Head; Giessen University, Germany)


In order to combine a study of within-country value diversity and cross-country differences, we applied a person-centered approach. Instead of focusing on the distinct value items, respondents from the 33 European countries were classified on the basis of the whole set of Schwartz value items (Portrait Values Questionnaire) by means of Latent Class Analysis. Six Pan-European value classes were found; they differ both by rank of values and degree of value preferences. Surprisingly, a class with the least pronounced value preferences appeared to be the largest one (38%). In each country all six value classes are represented. Nordic and Western European countries have more uniform distributions of value class shares than Post-Communist and Mediterranean countries; this is suggested to be an implication of societal developmental processes which start from the few people who commit themselves to the values of more advanced countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Vladimir Magun & Maksim Rudnev & Peter Schmidt, 2013. "Within and Between-Country Value Diversity in Europe: Latent Class Analysis," HSE Working papers WP BRP 06/SOC/2013, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hig:wpaper:06/soc/2013

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Guy Moors, 2003. "Diagnosing Response Style Behavior by Means of a Latent-Class Factor Approach. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Gender Role Attitudes and Perceptions of Ethnic Discrimination Reexamined," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 277-302, August.
    2. Bengt Muthén, 1989. "Latent variable modeling in heterogeneous populations," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 54(4), pages 557-585, September.
    3. Eun-Yeong Na & John Duckitt, 2003. "Value Consensus and Diversity between Generations and Genders," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 62(1), pages 411-435, April.
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    More about this item


    value; preference; heterogeneity; fractionalization; latent class analysis; European Social Survey (ESS); Portrait Values Questionnaire; cross-national comparison;

    JEL classification:

    • Z10 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - General

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