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Les normes fondamentales du travail contribuent-elles à réduire les inégalités ?

  • Rémi Bazillier

    ()

    (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne)

  • Nicolas Sirven

    ()

    (CED - IFReDE - GRES - Université Montesquieu - Bordeaux IV)

Cet article propose une investigation empirique des liens qu'entretiennent normes sociales et inégalité de revenus. Dans un premier temps, un indice de normes sociales du travail (travail des enfants, travail forcé, discrimination, liberté syndicale, conventions OIT) est déterminé. Aucun lien n'est trouvé a priori avec l'inégalité. Ceci s'explique par la différence entre la ratification des traités internationaux sur les normes sociales et la mise en place effective de ces normes par les pays signataires. C'est pourquoi, dans un second temps les normes sociales sont endogénéisées au moyen de variables instrumentales. Un nouvel indicateur de normes effectives est obtenu comme un output de l'efficacité du système politique et juridique. Il est en effet plus probable que les pays qui jouissent de meilleures institutions soient plus aptes à mettre en place effectivement des normes sociales. L'endogénéisation des normes sociales permet de mettre en évidence l'existence d'une courbe de Kuznets entre les normes et les inégalités de revenu pour 90 pays sur la période 1990-2001. Les normes sociales sont ainsi mobilisées comme facteur explicatif intermédiaire pour interpréter la courbe de Kuznets.

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Paper provided by HAL in its series Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) with number halshs-00112316.

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Date of creation: Feb 2006
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Handle: RePEc:hal:cesptp:halshs-00112316
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