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Exchange rates, non-traded goods and the terms-of-trade: an empirical application for New Zealand


  • Eric Hansen
  • Michael Hutchison


This article formulates and tests for New Zealand a model of exchange rate determination focusing on non-tradeable goods and terms-of-trade shifts. We emphasize the equilibrium properties of this framework and, in this context, estimate an error correction model where adjustment in response to deviation from equilibrium are an important determinant of short-run exchange rate movements. ; We estimate the model using a new data series on the supply of non-tradeable goods. The model has desirable empirical characteristics, including a plausible error correction equation, strong support for cointegration and rapid convergence to the long-run equilibrium. Moreover, a variety of diagnostic statistics, including parameter stability tests and out-of-sample forecasting performance, indicate the equation is a parsimonious representation of the data. These results provide considerable support for the emphasis on "real" determinants of nominal exchange rates, in this case fluctuations in non-traded goods supply and terms-of-trade.

Suggested Citation

  • Eric Hansen & Michael Hutchison, 1995. "Exchange rates, non-traded goods and the terms-of-trade: an empirical application for New Zealand," Pacific Basin Working Paper Series 95-01, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedfpb:95-01

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    2. Herring, Richard J. & Marston, Richard C., 1977. "Sterilization policy: The trade-off between monetary autonomy and control over foreign exchange reserves," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 325-343.
    3. Culver, Sarah E & Papell, David H, 1997. "Is There a Unit Root in the Inflation Rate? Evidence from Sequential Break and Panel Data Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 435-444, July-Aug..
    4. John T. Cuddington, 1993. "A Generalization and Assessment of the Index of Managed Float," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 26(1), pages 235-240, February.
    5. Rogoff, Kenneth, 1984. "On the effects of sterilized intervention : An analysis of weekly data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 133-150, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Economics Department, 1995. "Recent Reserve Bank research," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, vol. 58, September.
    2. Robert A Buckle & Kunhong Kim & Heather Kirkham & Nathan McLellan & Jared Sharma, 2002. "A structural VAR model of the New Zealand business cycle," Treasury Working Paper Series 02/26, New Zealand Treasury.
    3. Debabrata Bagchi & Georgios E. Chortareas & Stephen M. Miller, 2004. "The Real Exchange Rate in Small, Open, Developed Economies: Evidence from Cointegration Analysis," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 80(248), pages 76-88, March.


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