Differences in Science Based Innovation by Technology Life Cycles: The case of solar cell technology
This paper analyzes the role of university research in industrial innovation by different phases of the technology life cycle (TLC) and by patent analysis of solar cell technology. It is found that, in the early phase of TLC, the role of academic research is to broaden the technology scope to provide a variety of technologies to the market. Industry can be benefited directly from universities as a source of new technology. In contrast, in the later phase of TLC where both product and process innovation are important, university industry collaboration (UIC) patents are greater in patent quality as measured by normalized forward citation. In addition, scientific paper citations and the experience of UIC by firms' inventors are beneficial to high impact inventions. Therefore, the impact of academic research comes into play in a more indirect way, using scientific knowledge embodied by industry researchers in the later phase of TLC.
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