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Dinámica de empleo y productividad en manufactura: Evidencia micro y consecuencias macro

Author

Listed:
  • Alexis Camhi
  • Eduardo Engel

    ()

  • Alejandro Micco

Abstract

Este trabajo estudia los flujos anuales de empleo y la productividad (media del trabajo) de un promedio anual de aproximadamente 3,500 plantas del sector manufacturero chileno durante el período 1980-1992. Las principales conclusiones son las siguientes: (i) Las plantas exhiben una extraordinario heterogeneidad en sus flujos brutos anuales de empleo (creación y destrucción de empleo) y en sus tasa de productividad: un 43% tiene cambios anuales de empleo –y un 45% cambios anuales de productividad- que, en términos absolutos, superan el 20%. (ii) Las plantas que exportan una fracción significativa de su producción tienen niveles de productividad más altos que aquéllas que no exportan nada. Esta diferencia es mayor (en promedio en un 13%) en sectores clasificados como 'exportadores'. (iii) Tanto las plantas nuevas como aquéllas que abandonan el mercado tienen un nivel de productividad inferior (diferencia promedio de 35 y 29%, respectivamente) que las plantas continuas. (iv) Las plantas pasan por un proceso de aprendizaje durante sus primeros años de vida; el 23% de los empleos que se crean o destruyen (reasignación de empleo) en el sector se debe a este proceso.

Suggested Citation

  • Alexis Camhi & Eduardo Engel & Alejandro Micco, 1997. "Dinámica de empleo y productividad en manufactura: Evidencia micro y consecuencias macro," Documentos de Trabajo 19, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  • Handle: RePEc:edj:ceauch:19
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Osvaldo Larrañaga & Ricardo Paredes, 1999. "Unemployment and Wages in Chile: A Dynamic Perspective Using Synthetic Cohorts," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 36(109), pages 929-946.
    2. Carmen Pagés & Alejandro Micco, 2004. "Employment Protection and Gross Job Flows: A Differences-in-Differences Approach," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 1106, Inter-American Development Bank.
    3. José Miguel Benavente & Alexander Galetovic & Ricardo Sanhueza, 2005. "La dinámica industrial y el financiamiento de las pyme," Documentos de Trabajo 201, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
    4. Raphael Bergoeing & Patrick J. Kehoe & Timothy J. Kehoe & Raimundo Soto, 2002. "A Decade Lost and Found: Mexico and Chile in the 1980s," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 5(1), pages 166-205, January.
    5. Cristián Larroulet Vignau, 2003. "Public policies and national dvelopment," Past Working Papers 30, Universidad del Desarrollo, School of Business and Economics.
    6. Alejandro Micco & Carmen Pagés-Serra, 2004. "Protección del empleo y flujo bruto de puestos de trabajo: un enfoque de diferencias en diferencias," Research Department Publications 4366, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    7. Lucas Navarro & Raimundo Soto, 2006. "Procyclical Productivity in Manufacturing," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 43(127), pages 193-220.
    8. José Miguel Benavente & Christian Ferrada, 2004. "Probability of Survival of New Manufacturing Plants: the case of Chile," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 305, Econometric Society.
    9. Víctor O. Lima & Ricardo D. Paredes, 2007. "The dynamics of the labor markets in Chile," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 34(2 Year 20), pages 163-183, December.
    10. Rodrigo Vergara & Rosario Rivero, 2006. "Productividad Sectorial en Chile: 1986-2001," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 43(127), pages 143-168.
    11. Ricardo Paredes & Victor Lima, 2004. "Labor Market Regimes and Mobility through a Markov Chain in Chile," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 317, Econometric Society.
    12. Raphael Bergoeing & Patrick J. Kehoe & Timothy J. Kehoe & Raimundo Soto, 2002. "A Decade Lost and Found: Mexico and Chile in the 1980s," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 5(1), pages 166-205, January.
    13. Jaime Gatica & Pilar Romaguera, 2005. "El Mercado Laboral en Chile Nuevos Temas y Desafíos," Documentos de Trabajo 210, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.

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