IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/eab/macroe/22135.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Gender Impact of HIV and AIDS in India

Author

Listed:
  • Basanta K. Pradhan

    (NCAER)

  • Ramamani Sundar

Abstract

According to the estimates of NACO for the year 2005, in India, women account for around two million of the approximately 5.2 million estimated cases of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), constituting 39 percent of all HIV infections. The surveillance data indicates that, in high prevalence states, the epidemic is spreading gradually from urban to rural areas and from high-risk groups to the general population. A significant proportion of new infections is occurring in women who are in monogamous relationship and have been infected by husbands or partners who have multiple sex partners. According to NACO, of the 1,11,608 AIDS cases reported in the country till 31 July 2005, females accounted for nearly 30 percent. Biological, socio-cultural and economicfactors make women and young girls more vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. The HIV virus is more easily transmitted from men to women than from women to men; male-to-female transmission during sex is about twice as likely as femaleto-male transmission. In India, the low status of women, poverty, early marriage, trafficking, sex-work, migration, lack of education and gender discrimination are some of the factors responsible for increasing the vulnerability of women and girls to HIV infection. The impact of HIV and AIDS reaches far beyond the health sector with severe economic and social consequences and it has been found that it is much more severe on women than men. Women and girls seem to bear disproportionate brunt of the epidemic psychologically, socially and economically. This study attempts to assess the impact of HIV and AIDS on women and female children in India in terms of : (a) Burden of care, domestic work and economic responsibilities on women in the HIV households and the role of women as caregivers; (b) Health-seeking behaviour and outof-pocket expenditure incurred by the HIV households on the treatment of opportunistic infections (OIs) suffered by the PLWHA; (c) Ever and current enrolment of girls in school, gender differences in the reasons for discontinuation of schooling and the type of school attended by the children from HIV and non-HIV households; (d) S t i g m a a n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n experienced by the PLWHA in various contexts such as family, community, workplace and healthcare facilities; (e) K n o w l e d g e , a w a r e n e s s a n d misconception about HIV and AIDS, and attitude towards PLWHA among the general population; and (f ) Status of HIV-positive widows.

Suggested Citation

  • Basanta K. Pradhan & Ramamani Sundar, 2006. "Gender Impact of HIV and AIDS in India," Macroeconomics Working Papers 22135, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:eab:macroe:22135
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.eaber.org/node/22135
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Poonam Gupta & James P. F. Gordon, 2004. "Understanding India’s Services Revolution," IMF Working Papers 04/171, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Barry Bosworth & Susan M. Collins & Arvind Virmani, 2006. "Sources of Growth in the Indian Economy," India Policy Forum, Global Economy and Development Program, The Brookings Institution, pages 1-69.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    NACO; male-to-female transmission; impact on women; HIV; AIDS;

    JEL classification:

    • I00 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General - - - General
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eab:macroe:22135. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shiro Armstrong). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/eaberau.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.