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Trade Liberalization, Inequality and Poverty in Brazilian States

Author

Listed:
  • Marta Castilho

    () (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

  • Marta Menéndez

    () (Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa-DIAL, Paris - Paris School of Economics)

  • Aude Sztulman

    () (Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa-DIAL, Paris)

Abstract

This paper studies the impact of trade liberalization and international trade on household income inequality and poverty using detailed micro-data across Brazilian states, from 1987 to 2005. Results suggest that Brazilian states that were more exposed to tariff cuts experienced smaller reductions in household poverty and inequality. If significance of results on Brazilian states depends on the choice of poverty and inequality indicators, robust and contrasting results emerge when we disaggregate into rural and urban areas within states. Trade liberalization contributes to poverty and inequality increases in urban areas and may be linked to inequality declines in rural areas (no significant effect is found for rural poverty). In terms of observed integration to world markets, import penetration plays a similar role as trade liberalization for Brazilian states as a whole. On the contrary, rising export exposure appears to have significantly reduced both measures of household welfare. _________________________________ Cet article étudie l’impact de la libéralisation commerciale et du commerce international sur les inégalités de revenu et le niveau de pauvreté des ménages au sein des états brésiliens, à partir de données individuelles sur la période 1987-2005. D’après l’étude économétrique, les états brésiliens, davantage touchés par la libéralisation commerciale, ont connu de plus faibles réductions des inégalités ou de la pauvreté. Pour les états brésiliens dans leur ensemble, la significativité des résultats dépend du choix des indicateurs de pauvreté et d’inégalité mais, dès lors que l’on distingue les zones rurales et urbaines au sein des états, les effets sont robustes et contrastés. En zone urbaine, la libéralisation commerciale aurait contribué à accroître les niveaux de pauvreté et d’inégalité, tandis qu’elle entraînerait une diminution des inégalités en zone rurale (aucun impact significatif n’est observé sur la pauvreté rurale). En termes d’insertion des états brésiliens dans le commerce international, une hausse du taux de pénétration des importations joue dans le même sens que la libéralisation commerciale. Mais la propension à exporter d’un état contribuerait à réduire tant la pauvreté que les inégalités de revenu.

Suggested Citation

  • Marta Castilho & Marta Menéndez & Aude Sztulman, 2010. "Trade Liberalization, Inequality and Poverty in Brazilian States," Working Papers DT/2010/02, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  • Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt201002
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Laura Policardo & Lionello F. Punzo & Edgar J. Sánchez Carrera, 2016. "Brazil and China: Two Routes of Economic Development?," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 651-669, August.
    2. Timothy Halliday & Daniel Lederman & Raymond Robertson, 2018. "Tracking wage inequality trends with prices and different trade models: evidence from Mexico," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 154(1), pages 47-73, February.
    3. -, 2014. "International trade and inclusive development: Building synergies," Libros y Documentos Institucionales, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), number 3 edited by Eclac, February.
    4. repec:uwp:jhriss:v:52:y:2017:i:2:p:457-490 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Isis Gaddis & Janneke Pieters, 2017. "The Gendered Labor Market Impacts of Trade Liberalization: Evidence from Brazil," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 52(2), pages 457-490.
    6. Kis-Katos, Krisztina & Sparrow, Robert, 2015. "Poverty, labor markets and trade liberalization in Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 94-106.
    7. Nazeem ud din & Khalid Zaman & Shagufta Ashraf & Faiza Sajjad & Sundas Saleem & Uzma Raja, 2015. "Quality versus quantity in health care and educational reforms: combating poverty," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 267-293, January.
    8. L. Alan Winters & Antonio Martuscelli, 2014. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty: What Have We Learned in a Decade?," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 6(1), pages 493-512, October.
    9. Jérémie Gignoux & Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann, 2017. "The Regional Impact of Trade Liberalization on Households in Egypt, 1999-2012," Working Papers 1109, Economic Research Forum, revised 06 2017.
    10. Ghani,Syed Ejaz & Grover,Arti & Kerr,Sari & Kerr,William Robert, 2016. "Will market competition trump gender discrimination in India ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7814, The World Bank.
    11. Gaddis, Isis & Pieters, Janneke, 2012. "Trade Liberalization and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Brazil," IZA Discussion Papers 6809, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. -, 2014. "International trade and inclusive development: Building synergies," Colección "La hora de la Igualdad", Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), number 3 edited by Eclac, July.
    13. Lin, Faqin & Fu, Dahai, 2016. "Trade, Institution Quality and Income Inequality," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 129-142.
    14. Paolo Giordano & Kun Li, 2012. "An Updated Assessment of the Trade and Poverty Nexus in Latin America," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 79119, Inter-American Development Bank.
    15. Fukase, Emiko, 2013. "Export Liberalization, Job Creation, and the Skill Premium: Evidence from the US–Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement (BTA)," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 317-337.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Trade liberalization; poverty and inequality; Brazilian states; Libéralisation commerciale; pauvreté et inégalités; états brésiliens.;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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