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L’évolution de la mobilité scolaire intergénérationnelle au Pérou depuis un siècle

  • Laure Pasquier-Doumer


    (DIAL, IEP-Paris)

(English) Since the beginning of the twentieth century, the education system in Peru has known a considerable development. This suggests that in all probabilities opportunities for study should be on a more equal basis. In the present article, I set out to discover whether all social groups have really benefited from the development of the school system and whether this development created equal opportunities or not. I therefore analyze the evolution of educational inequalities throughout the twentieth century by basing my observations on the evolution of the relationship between the educational level attained and the sociocultural origin of the person. I then examine whether the apparently diminishing importance of this relationship is due to the opening up of a vaster field of equal opportunities or whether the principal factor is the generalized prolongation of studies. Finally, I examine what public policies could be pursued in order to increase equal educational opportunities. Thanks to the exceptional quality of the data at our disposal, this is the first time these issues can be dealt with in relationship to a developing country. _________________________________ (français) Le développement considérable de l’enseignement qui caractérise le Pérou depuis le début du vingtième siècle suggère que l’accès à l’éducation scolaire est devenu plus égalitaire. Dans cet article, je cherche à savoir si réellement le développement a profité à tous de la même manière et s’il s’est accompagné d’une égalisation des opportunités scolaires. Pour cela, j’analyse l’évolution des inégalités sociales devant l’école tout au long du vingtième siècle en étudiant l’évolution du lien entre le niveau d’éducation des personnes et leur origine culturelle. Ensuite, j’examine si le relâchement de ce lien que l’on observe s’explique par une plus forte égalité d’opportunités scolaires ou s’il n’est que le résultat de l’allongement généralisé des études. Enfin, j’étudie quelles politiques publiques pourraient être conduites pour accroître l’égalité des chances devant l’école. L’originalité de cet article est de pouvoir aborder cette problématique pour un pays en développement grâce à la base de données exceptionnelle dont on dispose ici.

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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2003/02.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2003
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200302
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