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L’analytique et le synthétique en économie

  • Philippe MONGIN

    (CNRS et HEC)

L'article applique à la micro-économie une distinction classique en philosophie du langage, celle des propositions analytiques et synthétiques. Un article ultérieur la rapprochera de la distinction épistémologique des connaissances a priori et a posteriori. On commence par reprendre les définitions principales de l'analytique et du synthétique, et l'on rejette les objections célèbres que Quine a dirigées contre elles. On montre ensuite comment ces définitions opèrent sur la théorie des biens Giffen et des biens substituts. La distinction de l'analytique et du synthétique permet de clarifier des options que les micro-économistes laissent implicites, au risque de tomber dans des pièges sémantiques; en l'occurrence, elle vient renforcer la critique déjà faite de la définition hicksienne des substituts. A titre annexe, on montre que la méthodologie économique identifie incorrectement les propositions analytiques aux tautologies, et les propositions synthétiques à celles qui sont testables.

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Paper provided by Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES) in its series Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain) with number 2006041.

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Length: 36
Date of creation: 01 Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ctl:louvre:2006041
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  1. Browning, M. & Chiappori, P.A., 1994. "Efficient Intra-Household allocations: A General Characterization and Empirical Tests," DELTA Working Papers 94-16, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
  2. Vandermeulen, Daniel C, 1972. "Upward Sloping Demand Curves Without the Giffen Paradox," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(3), pages 453-58, June.
  3. Philippe Mongin, 2006. "Value Judgments and Value Neutrality in Economics," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 73(290), pages 257-286, 05.
  4. Richard G. Lipsey & Gideon Rosenbluth, 1971. "A Contribution to the New Theory of Demand: A Rehabilitation of the Giffen Good," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 4(2), pages 131-63, May.
  5. Patinkin, Don, 1969. "The Chicago Tradition, the Quantity Theory, and Friedman," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 46-70, February.
  6. Battalio, Raymond C & Kagel, John H & Kogut, Carl A, 1991. "Experimental Confirmation of the Existence of a Giffen Good," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 961-70, September.
  7. Hicks, J. R., 1986. "A Revision of Demand Theory," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198285502.
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