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L’analytique et le synthétique en économie


  • Philippe MONGIN

    (CNRS et HEC)


L'article applique à la micro-économie une distinction classique en philosophie du langage, celle des propositions analytiques et synthétiques. Un article ultérieur la rapprochera de la distinction épistémologique des connaissances a priori et a posteriori. On commence par reprendre les définitions principales de l'analytique et du synthétique, et l'on rejette les objections célèbres que Quine a dirigées contre elles. On montre ensuite comment ces définitions opèrent sur la théorie des biens Giffen et des biens substituts. La distinction de l'analytique et du synthétique permet de clarifier des options que les micro-économistes laissent implicites, au risque de tomber dans des pièges sémantiques; en l'occurrence, elle vient renforcer la critique déjà faite de la définition hicksienne des substituts. A titre annexe, on montre que la méthodologie économique identifie incorrectement les propositions analytiques aux tautologies, et les propositions synthétiques à celles qui sont testables.

Suggested Citation

  • Philippe MONGIN, 2006. "L’analytique et le synthétique en économie," Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain) 2006041, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  • Handle: RePEc:ctl:louvre:2006041

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. M. Browning & P. A. Chiappori, 1998. "Efficient Intra-Household Allocations: A General Characterization and Empirical Tests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(6), pages 1241-1278, November.
    2. Battalio, Raymond C & Kagel, John H & Kogut, Carl A, 1991. "Experimental Confirmation of the Existence of a Giffen Good," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 961-970, September.
    3. Philippe Mongin, 2006. "Value Judgments and Value Neutrality in Economics," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 73(290), pages 257-286, May.
    4. Hicks, J. R., 1986. "A Revision of Demand Theory," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198285502, June.
    5. Deaton,Angus & Muellbauer,John, 1980. "Economics and Consumer Behavior," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521296762, March.
    6. Vandermeulen, Daniel C, 1972. "Upward Sloping Demand Curves Without the Giffen Paradox," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(3), pages 453-458, June.
    7. Patinkin, Don, 1969. "The Chicago Tradition, the Quantity Theory, and Friedman," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 46-70, February.
    8. Richard G. Lipsey & Gideon Rosenbluth, 1971. "A Contribution to the New Theory of Demand: A Rehabilitation of the Giffen Good," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 4(2), pages 131-163, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Schinckus, Christophe, 2010. "Is econophysics a new discipline? The neopositivist argument," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(18), pages 3814-3821.
    2. Schinckus, Christophe, 2015. "Positivism in finance and its implication for the diversification finance research," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 103-106.

    More about this item


    Analytique; synthétique; Quine; biens Giffen; substituts; Hicks; théorie du consommateur;

    JEL classification:

    • B41 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Economic Methodology - - - Economic Methodology
    • B21 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - Microeconomics
    • B22 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - Macroeconomics
    • D11 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Theory


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