IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cpr/ceprdp/3227.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Explaining Leakage of Public Funds

Author

Listed:
  • Reinikka, Ritva
  • Svensson, Jakob

Abstract

Using panel data from an unique survey of public primary schools in Uganda we assess the degree of leakage of public funds in education. The survey data reveal that on average, during the period 1991-95, schools received only 13% of what the central government contributed to the schools’ non-wage expenditures. The bulk of the allocated spending was either used by public officials for purposes unrelated to education or captured for private gain (leakage). Moreover, we find that resource flows and leakages are endogenous to schools socio-political endowment. Rather than being passive recipients of flows from government, schools use their bargaining power vis-a-vis other parts of government to secure greater shares of funding. These results have clear implications for research. The survey findings also had a direct impact on policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Reinikka, Ritva & Svensson, Jakob, 2002. "Explaining Leakage of Public Funds," CEPR Discussion Papers 3227, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3227
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=3227
    Download Restriction: CEPR Discussion Papers are free to download for our researchers, subscribers and members. If you fall into one of these categories but have trouble downloading our papers, please contact us at subscribers@cepr.org

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Di Tella, Rafael & Schargrodsky, Ernesto, 2003. "The Role of Wages and Auditing during a Crackdown on Corruption in the City of Buenos Aires," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(1), pages 269-292, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Margaret Koziol & Courtney Tolmie, 2010. "Using Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys to Monitor Projects and Small-Scale Programs : A Guidebook," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2502.
    2. Reinikka, Ritva & Svensson, Jakob, 2011. "The power of information in public services: Evidence from education in Uganda," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 956-966, August.
    3. Rai, Ashok S., 2002. "Targeting the poor using community information," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 71-83, October.
    4. Junaid Ahmad & Shantayanan Devarajan & Stuti Khemani & Shekhar Shah, 2006. "Decentralization and Service Delivery," Chapters,in: Handbook of Fiscal Federalism, chapter 10 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. World Bank, 2003. "Making Services Work for Poor People : The Role of Participatory Public Expenditure Management (PPEM)," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11318, The World Bank.
    6. Gudrun Kochendörfer-Lucius & Boris Pleskovic, 2004. "Berlin Workshop Series 2004 : Service Provision for the Poor--Public and Private Sector Cooperation," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15027.
    7. Wokadala, James & Magidu, Nyende & Guloba, Madina & Barungi, Mildred, 2011. "Public Spending in the Water Sub-sector in Uganda: Evidence from Program Budget Analysis," Research Series 150476, Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC).
    8. Axel Dreher & Peter Nunnenkamp & Rainer Thiele, 2008. "Does Aid for Education Educate Children? Evidence from Panel Data," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(2), pages 291-314, April.
    9. Reinikka, Ritva & Svensson, Jakob, 2002. "Coping with poor public capital," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 51-69, October.
    10. Anton Eberhard & Orvika Rosnes & Maria Shkaratan & Haakon Vennemo, 2011. "Africa's Power Infrastructure : Investment, Integration, Efficiency," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2290.
    11. Rune Jansen Hagen, 2002. "Marginalisation in the Context of Globalisation: Why Is Africa so Poor?," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 28, pages 147-179.
    12. Lessmann, Christian & Markwardt, Gunther, 2012. "Aid, Growth and Devolution," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(9), pages 1723-1749.
    13. Hillman, Arye L., 2002. "The World Bank and the persistence of poverty in poor countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 783-795, November.
    14. Levy, Daniel, 2007. "Price adjustment under the table: Evidence on efficiency-enhancing corruption," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 423-447, June.
    15. Khaleghian, Peyvand & Das Gupta Monica, 2004. "Public management and essential public health functions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3220, The World Bank.
    16. Chaudhury, Nazmul & Hammer, Jeffrey S., 2003. "Ghost doctors - absenteeism in Bangladeshi health facilities," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3065, The World Bank.
    17. Aline Coudouel & Stefano Paternostro, 2005. "Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms : A Practioner's Guide to Trade, Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy, Utility Provision, Agricultural Markets, Land Policy and Education, Volume 1," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7251.
    18. Reinikka, Ritva & Svensson, Jakob, 2003. "Survey techniques to measure and explain corruption," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3071, The World Bank.
    19. Das, Jishnu, 2004. "Equity in educational expenditures : can government subsidies help?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3249, The World Bank.
    20. Omar Azfar & Tugrul Gurgur, 2008. "Does corruption affect health outcomes in the Philippines?," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 197-244, July.
    21. Warlters, Michael & Auriol, Emmanuelle, 2005. "The marginal cost of public funds in Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3679, The World Bank.
    22. Khaleghian, Peyvand & Gupta, Monica Das, 2005. "Public management and the essential public health functions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1083-1099, July.
    23. Allen, Summer L. & Qaim, Matin, 2012. "Agricultural productivity and public expenditures in sub-saharan africa:," IFPRI discussion papers 1173, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    24. Eva Jenkner & Arye L. Hillman, 2002. "User Payments for Basic Education in Low-Income Countries," IMF Working Papers 02/182, International Monetary Fund.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    corruption; leakage; public expenditure tracking survey; school funding;

    JEL classification:

    • D73 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption
    • H52 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3227. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.