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Monitoring the Monitors: Amakudari and the Ex-Post Monitoring of Private Banks


  • Hassink, Wolter
  • van Rixtel, Adrian


The paper investigates whether the Japanese monetary authorities use post-retirement employment of Ministry of Finance (MoF) and Bank of Japan (BoJ) officials as a policy instrument. The authors also investigate whether industrial groupings (keiretsu) and main banks have monitoring functions. They find that MoF and BoJ retirees do move into banks that perform badly in terms of profitability. Furthermore, the paper concludes that the movement of these retirees into the boards of private banks is positively related to specific main bank relationships. The hypothesis of monitoring by keiretsu is rejected, however. Finally, the paper finds that MoF/BoJ amakudari appointments have a positive impact on the development of lending to risky industries. In particular, this latter finding casts doubts on the credibility of the hypothesis that amakudari is used as an instrument of prudential policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Hassink, Wolter & van Rixtel, Adrian, 1998. "Monitoring the Monitors: Amakudari and the Ex-Post Monitoring of Private Banks," CEPR Discussion Papers 1785, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1785

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    Cited by:

    1. Suzuki, Kenji, 2004. "The Changing Pattern of Amakudari Appointments - The Case of Regional Banks 1991-2000," EIJS Working Paper Series 187, Stockholm School of Economics, The European Institute of Japanese Studies.
    2. Suzuki, Kenji, 2004. "Is Amakudari Changing? The Case of Regional Banks," EIJS Working Paper Series 198, Stockholm School of Economics, The European Institute of Japanese Studies.
    3. Anderson, Christopher W. & Campbell, Terry II, 2004. "Corporate governance of Japanese banks," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 327-354, June.
    4. Albrecht Rothacher, 2006. "After the banquet: Japan’s power elite revisited," Asia Europe Journal, Springer, vol. 4(3), pages 399-416, September.
    5. Suzuki, Kenji, 2001. "Effect of Amakudari on Bank Performance in the Post-Bubble Period," EIJS Working Paper Series 136, Stockholm School of Economics, The European Institute of Japanese Studies.

    More about this item


    Amakudari; Corporate Governance; Monitoring; prudential policy;

    JEL classification:

    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • G30 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - General
    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation


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