IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Long Walk to School: International Education Goals in Historical Perspective

  • Michael Clemens

    ()

Raising school enrollment, like economic development in general, takes a long time. This is partly because, as a mountain of empirical evidence now shows, economic conditions and slowly- changing parental education levels determine children’s school enrollment to a greater degree than education policy interventions. A succession of international meetings has nevertheless adopted a litany of utopian international goals for universal school enrollment and gender parity in education based on the idea that a correct education policy backed by sufficient cash could achieve the goals in short order. The latest of these, the Millennium Development Goals, call for universal primary schooling and full gender parity by 2015. This work quantifies how long it has taken countries rich and poor to make the transition towards high enrollments and gender parity. There are three central lessons. First, there is a remarkable uniformity of experience in the rates of enrollment increases, a reality from which the various rounds of goals appear entirely detached. Second, many countries that have not raised enrollments fast enough to meet the goals have in fact raised enrollments extraordinarily rapidly by historical standards and deserve celebration rather than condemnation. The very few poor countries that have raised enrollment figures at the rates envisioned by the goals have done so in many cases by accepting dramatic declines in schooling quality, failing large numbers of students, or other practices that cast doubt on the sustainability or exportability of their techniques. Third, aid-supported education policies can help within limits, and their performance should be judged in the context of country-specific, historically-grounded goals. But a country’s broader development strategy outside the classroom matters much more than education policy. Length: 78 pages

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/2754
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Center for Global Development in its series Working Papers with number 37.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Mar 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cgd:wpaper:37
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.cgdev.org

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Spohr, Chris A., 2003. "Formal schooling and workforce participation in a rapidly developing economy: evidence from "compulsory" junior high school in Taiwan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 291-327, April.
  2. Arjun S. Bedi & Paul K. Kimalu & Damiano Kulundu Mandab & Nancy Nafula, 2004. "The Decline in Primary School Enrolment in Kenya," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 13(1), pages 1-43, March.
  3. Clive Bell & Shantayanan Devarajan & Hans Gersbach, 2003. "The long-run economic costs of AIDS : theory and an application to South Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3152, The World Bank.
  4. T. Paul Schultz, 2001. "The Fertility Transition: Economic Explanations," Working Papers 833, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  5. Claudia Goldin & Lawrence Katz, 2003. "Mass Secondary Schooling and the State," NBER Working Papers 10075, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Pritchett, Lant & Filmer, Deon, 1999. "What education production functions really show: a positive theory of education expenditures," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 223-239, April.
  7. Simon Appleton, 2000. "Education and health at the household level in sub-Saharan Africa," CID Working Papers 33, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
  8. Simon, Julian L. & Boggs, Rebecca, 1997. "Trends in the quantities of education: A pictorial essay," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 69-80, February.
  9. Pritchett, Lant, 2006. "Does Learning to Add up Add up? The Returns to Schooling in Aggregate Data," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
  10. Mikael Lindahl & Alan B. Krueger, 2001. "Education for Growth: Why and for Whom?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1101-1136, December.
  11. Colclough, Christopher, 1982. "The impact of primary schooling on economic development: a review of the evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 167-185, March.
  12. Tony Addison & Aminur Rahman, 2007. "Why is so Little Spent on Educating the Poor?," Working Papers id:1080, eSocialSciences.
  13. Swamy, P A V B, 1970. "Efficient Inference in a Random Coefficient Regression Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 38(2), pages 311-23, March.
  14. Siphambe, Happy Kufigwa, 2000. "Rates of return to education in Botswana," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 291-300, June.
  15. Brown, Philip H. & Park, Albert, 2002. "Education and poverty in rural China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 523-541, December.
  16. Cogneau, Denis, 2003. "Colonisation, School and Development in Africa. An empirical analysis," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4563, Paris Dauphine University.
  17. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
  18. Haddad, W.D. & Carnoy, M. & Rinaldi, R. & Regel, O., 1990. "Education And Development; Evidence For New Priorities," World Bank - Discussion Papers 95, World Bank.
  19. Ahuja, Vinod & Filmer, Deon, 1995. "Educational attainments in developing countries : new estimates and projections disaggregated by gender," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1489, The World Bank.
  20. Psacharopoulos, George & Arriagada, Ana Maria, 1989. "The Determinants of Early Age Human Capital Formation: Evidence from Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(4), pages 683-708, July.
  21. Schultz, Theodore W., 1989. "Investing in people: Schooling in low income countries," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 219-223, June.
  22. Morley, Samuel & David Coady, 2003. "From Social Assistance to Social Development: Targeted Education Subsidies in Developing Countries," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number cgd376.
  23. De Gregorio, Jose, 1996. "Borrowing constraints, human capital accumulation, and growth," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 49-71, February.
  24. Peter J. Klenow & Mark Bils, 2000. "Does Schooling Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(5), pages 1160-1183, December.
  25. Eric V. Edmonds, 2005. "Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(1).
  26. King, Elizabeth M., 1996. "Education, work and earnings of Peruvian women," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 213-230, June.
  27. Jessica Holmes, 1999. "Measuring the Determinants of School Completion in Pakistan: Analysis of Censoring and Selection Bias," Working Papers 794, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  28. Mohammad Haque & Niloy Bose & Denise R. Osborn, 2004. "Public expenditure and growth in developing countries: education is the key," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2003 41, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  29. Bredie, J.W.B. & Beeharry, G.K., 1998. "School Enrollment Decline in Sub-saharan Africa. Beyond the Supply Constraint," World Bank - Discussion Papers 395, World Bank.
  30. Colm Harmon & Hessel Oosterbeek & Ian Walker, 2003. "The Returns to Education: Microeconomics," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 115-156, 04.
  31. Filmer, Deon & King, Elizabeth M. & Pritchett, Lant, 1998. "Gender disparity in South Asia : comparisons between and within countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1867, The World Bank.
  32. Lavy, Victor, 1996. "School supply constraints and children's educational outcomes in rural Ghana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 291-314, December.
  33. Handa, Sudhanshu, 2002. "Raising primary school enrolment in developing countries: The relative importance of supply and demand," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 103-128, October.
  34. Author ERasmo Papagni, 2002. "Human capital, fertility and growth under borrowing constraints," GE, Growth, Math methods 0205001, EconWPA, revised 03 May 2002.
  35. Pritchett, Lant H. & DEC, 1994. "Desired fertility and the impact of population policies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1273, The World Bank.
  36. Sarmistha Pal, 2003. "How Much of the Gender Difference in Child School Enrolment Can Be Explained? Evidence from Rural India," HEW 0309004, EconWPA.
  37. Jishnu Das & Stefan Dercon & James Habyarimana & Pramila Krishnan, 2004. "When Can School Inputs Improve Test Scores?," CSAE Working Paper Series 2004-25, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  38. Holmes, J., 1999. "Measuring the Determinants of School Completion in Pakistan: Analysis of Censoring and Selection Bias," Papers 794, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  39. Ram, Rati, 1999. "Tropics, income, and school life expectancy: an intercountry study," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 253-258, April.
  40. Deininger, Klaus, 2003. "Does cost of schooling affect enrollment by the poor? Universal primary education in Uganda," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 291-305, June.
  41. Levhari, David & Weiss, Yoram, 1974. "The Effect of Risk on the Investment in Human Capital," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(6), pages 950-63, December.
  42. Claudia Goldin, 1999. "A Brief History of Education in the United States," NBER Historical Working Papers 0119, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  43. Yasuyuki Sawada, 2003. "Income Risks, Gender, and Human Capital Investment in a Developing Country," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-198, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  44. Benabou, Roland, 1996. "Equity and Efficiency in Human Capital Investment: The Local Connection," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(2), pages 237-64, April.
  45. Sciiultz, T. Paul, 1988. "Expansion of public school expenditures and enrollments: Intercountry evidence on the effects of income, prices, and population growth," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 167-183, April.
  46. Esther Duflo, 2000. "Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment," NBER Working Papers 7860, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  47. Mark Rogers, 2003. "Directly Unproductive Schooling: How Country Characteristics Affect the Impact of Schooling on Growth," Economics Series Working Papers 166, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  48. Eric A. Hanushek, . "Interpreting Recent Research on Schooling in Developing Countries," Wallis Working Papers WP3, University of Rochester - Wallis Institute of Political Economy.
  49. Enrique Delamonica & Santosh Mehrotra & Jan Vandemoortele, 2001. "Is EFA Affordable? Estimating the global minimum cost of 'Education for All'," Papers inwopa01/15, Innocenti Working Papers.
  50. Robertson, Peter & John S Landon-Lane, 2003. "Can government policies increase national long-run growth rates?," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 175, Royal Economic Society.
  51. Devarajan, Shantayanan & Miller, Margaret J. & Swanson, Eric V., 2002. "Goals for development : history, prospects and costs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2819, The World Bank.
  52. Shapiro, David & Oleko Tambashe, B., 2001. "Gender, poverty, family structure, and investments in children's education in Kinshasa, Congo," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 359-375, August.
  53. Alaka Malwade Basu & Sajeda Amin, 2000. "Conditioning Factors for Fertility Decline in Bengal: History, Language Identity, and Openness to Innovations," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 26(4), pages 761-794.
  54. Tansel, Aysit, 2002. "Determinants of school attainment of boys and girls in Turkey: individual, household and community factors," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 455-470, October.
  55. Lin, T. -C., 2003. "Education, technical progress, and economic growth: the case of Taiwan," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 213-220, April.
  56. McMahon, Walter W., 1998. "Education and Growth in East Asia," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 159-172, April.
  57. Benhabib, Jess & Spiegel, Mark M, 2000. " The Role of Financial Development in Growth and Investment," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 341-60, December.
  58. Behrman, Jere R., 1987. "Schooling in developing countries: Which countries are the Over- and underachievers and what is the schooling impact?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 111-127, April.
  59. Al-Samarrai, Samer & Peasgood, Tessa, 1998. "Educational attainments and household characteristics in Tanzania," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 395-417, October.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cgd:wpaper:37. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (David Roodman)

The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask David Roodman to update the entry or send us the correct address

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.