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Income Distribution in Brazil 1981-1990: Parametric and Non-Parametric Approaches


  • Frank A Cowell
  • Francisco H.G. Ferreira
  • Julie Litchfield


Using a newly available comprehensive micro-data set we examine changes in the shape of the Brazilian income distribution during the "lost decade" of the 1980s. We adopt alternative parametric and non-parametric approaches to modelling the distribution. We show that inequality changed dramatically during the decade, along with modest changes in average income. Applying nonparametric kernel density estimation methods we also show that the shape of the underlying income distribution was transformed in a particularly interesting fashion.

Suggested Citation

  • Frank A Cowell & Francisco H.G. Ferreira & Julie Litchfield, 1996. "Income Distribution in Brazil 1981-1990: Parametric and Non-Parametric Approaches," STICERD - Distributional Analysis Research Programme Papers 21, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  • Handle: RePEc:cep:stidar:21

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Cowell, Frank A & Victoria-Feser, Maria-Pia, 1996. "Robustness Properties of Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(1), pages 77-101, January.
    2. Foster, James E., 1983. "An axiomatic characterization of the Theil measure of income inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 105-121, October.
    3. Gastwirth, Joseph L., 1975. "The estimation of a family of measures of economic inequality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 61-70, February.
    4. Gastwirth, Joseph L, 1974. "Large Sample Theory of Some Measures of Income Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(1), pages 191-196, January.
    5. Danziger, Sheldon & Taussig, Michael K, 1979. "The Income Unit and the Anatomy of Income Distribution," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 25(4), pages 365-375, December.
    6. Davies, J. B. & Shorrocks, A. F., 1989. "Optimal grouping of income and wealth data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 97-108, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Almas Heshmati, 2006. "Continental And Sub-Continental Income Inequality," The IUP Journal of Applied Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(1), pages 7-52, January.
    2. Hagmann, M. & Scaillet, O., 2007. "Local multiplicative bias correction for asymmetric kernel density estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 141(1), pages 213-249, November.
    3. Lombardo Vincenzo, 2011. "Growth and Inequality Effects on Poverty Reduction in Italy," Rivista italiana degli economisti, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 241-280.
    4. Heshmati, Almas, 2004. "The World Distribution of Income and Income Inequality," IZA Discussion Papers 1267, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. François Bourguignon & Francisco de Hollanda Guimarães Ferreira, 2000. "Understanding inequality in Brazil: a conceptual overview," Textos para discussão 434, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
    6. Ricardo Freguglia & Naercio Menezes-Filho, 2012. "Inter-regional wage differentials with individual heterogeneity: evidence from Brazil," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 49(1), pages 17-34, August.


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